Our goal is to understand the basis of immune and inflammatory responses within the CNS. Immunological activation of macrophages/microglia and astrocytes leads to the production of cytokines that impact on glial and neuronal function. Cytokines have far-reaching effects in the CNS, including the initiation and regulation of immune/inflammatory responses. Macrophages/microglia and astrocytes not only produce cytokines, but also respond to them via cell surface receptors. Macrophage/microglial and astrocytic activation in general is aimed at promoting a beneficial restoration of endangered CNS elements and functions. However, excessive and sustained stimulation of these cells contributes to acute and chronic neuropathologies. Therefore, dysregulation of macrophage/microglial and astrocytic cytokine production and responsiveness may promote direct neurotoxicity, as well as disturb neural cell functions. The biological effects of cytokines are mediated by intracellular signal transduction pathways;the most common being the Janus Kinase (JAK) and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) pathway (JAK-STAT). Cytokines implicated in CNS pathology include IFN-y, IFN-p and IL-6 family members, all of which signal through the JAK-STAT pathway. A precise regulation of both the magnitude and duration of JAK and STAT activation is essential, as dysregulation of the JAK-STAT pathway has pathological implications. Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) proteins function to inhibit the JAK-STAT pathway. SOCS proteins are inducible by cytokines, and inhibit signaling by directly binding to cytokine receptor chains or associated JAKs to inhibit tyrosine kinase activity, thereby functioning in a negative feedback loop. There is limited information regarding the expression and function of SOCS proteins within the CNS. Our preliminary results indicate that both SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 function to attenuate expression of genes critical for immune/inflammatory responses in macrophages/microglia and astrocytes. We hypothesize that expression of SOCS-1/SOCS-3 will attenuate cytokine-induced inflammatory and immune responses by inhibiting activation of these cells, thereby exerting beneficial effects for immune-mediated CNS diseases. We will examine the ability of astrocytes, microglia and macrophages to express SOCS-1/SOCS-3 proteins in response to CNS-relevant stimuli, and elucidate the transcriptional programs underlying SOCS-1/SOCS-3 gene transcription (Aims 1 and 3). The ability of SOCS-1/SOCS-3 to modulate immunological and inflammatory responses in glial cells and macrophages will also be examined (Aims 2 and 4), using macrophage and astroglial cell lines that express siRNA against SOCS-1/SOCS-3 in an inducible manner. Our proposed studies will provide the first biological assessment of SOCS-1/SOCS-3 production and function in cells of the CNS, thereby providing the basis for future assessment of SOCS-1/SOCS-3 as attenuators of inflammatory and neurotoxic responses in the CNS.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS057563-04
Application #
8009480
Study Section
Clinical Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumors Study Section (CNBT)
Program Officer
Utz, Ursula
Project Start
2007-12-15
Project End
2012-11-30
Budget Start
2010-12-01
Budget End
2012-11-30
Support Year
4
Fiscal Year
2011
Total Cost
$248,675
Indirect Cost
Name
University of Alabama Birmingham
Department
Anatomy/Cell Biology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
063690705
City
Birmingham
State
AL
Country
United States
Zip Code
35294
Gibson, Sara A; Yang, Wei; Yan, Zhaoqi et al. (2017) Protein Kinase CK2 Controls the Fate between Th17 Cell and Regulatory T Cell Differentiation. J Immunol 198:4244-4254
Park, Keun Woo; Lin, Ching-Yi; Benveniste, Etty N et al. (2016) Mitochondrial STAT3 is negatively regulated by SOCS3 and upregulated after spinal cord injury. Exp Neurol 284:98-105
Zhao, Jiping; Yu, Hao; Liu, Yudong et al. (2016) Protective effect of suppressing STAT3 activity in LPS-induced acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 311:L868-L880
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Guthrie, Lauren N; Abiraman, Kavitha; Plyler, Emily S et al. (2016) Attenuation of PKR-like ER Kinase (PERK) Signaling Selectively Controls Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Inflammation Without Compromising Immunological Responses. J Biol Chem 291:15830-40
Basu, Rajatava; Whitley, Sarah K; Bhaumik, Suniti et al. (2015) IL-1 signaling modulates activation of STAT transcription factors to antagonize retinoic acid signaling and control the TH17 cell-iTreg cell balance. Nat Immunol 16:286-95
Liu, Yudong; Gibson, Sara A; Benveniste, Etty N et al. (2015) Opportunities for Translation from the Bench: Therapeutic Intervention of the JAK/STAT Pathway in Neuroinflammatory Diseases. Crit Rev Immunol 35:505-27
Rajbhandari, Rajani; McFarland, Braden C; Patel, Ashish et al. (2015) Loss of tumor suppressive microRNA-31 enhances TRADD/NF-?B signaling in glioblastoma. Oncotarget 6:17805-16

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