Hemispheric specialization refers to lateralized motor, perceptual and cognitive functions to the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Studies have shown that individual variation in patterns of neuroanatomical and behavioral asymmetries are associated with various clinical problems such as major psychoses (schizophrenia), neurodevelopmental disorders such as William's syndrome, autism and stuttering and learning disabilities such as dyslexia and specific language impairment. The long-term goals of the proposed studies are to identify the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms that influence the development of hemispheric specialization in primates. One aspect of the proposal will assess the independent and potential interactive effects of genetic and early social rearing factors on the development of brain asymmetries in primates. Notably, heritability estimates in brain asymmetries will be computed in genetically related individuals that have been reared together or apart during the first three years life. In a second part of the proposed studies, post-mortem brains will be obtained from primates and cytoarchitectonic analyses will be performed for 8 distinct Brodmann's regions. Individual cytoarchitectonic maps will be derived for each ape and these will be registered to a template brain. Subsequently probabilistic maps of these regions will be created and applied to a large sample of in vivo MRI scans (N >290) registered to the same template in order to estimate grey matter volumes of each cytoarchtectonic region. Heritabilty estimates of the grey matter volumes will then computed in the entire sample in relation to known pedigrees. Lastly, analyses will be performed to examine whether variation in asymmetries in both in vivo and post-mortem brains are associated with oro- facial motor control among related and unrelated individuals. In particular, these analyses aim to assess whether developing oro-facial motor control associated with the production of intentional vocalizations results in cortical reorganization within the primary and premotor cortex. Collectively the results of this study will provide critical information on the influence of genetic and early rearing factors on both the development and evolution of hemispheric specialization in primates.

Public Health Relevance

Individual differences in hemispheric specialization have been linked to a variety of psychological and neurological disorders and there is a need for continued studies on identifying factors that influence the development of functional and neuroanatomical asymmetries in primates. The goal of the proposed studies is to assess the influence of genetics and early social rearing experiences on the development of brain asymmetries in primates.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS073134-03
Application #
8322577
Study Section
Cognitive Neuroscience Study Section (COG)
Program Officer
Chen, Daofen
Project Start
2011-09-01
Project End
2015-08-31
Budget Start
2012-09-01
Budget End
2013-08-31
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$321,712
Indirect Cost
$57,581
Name
Georgia State University
Department
Neurosciences
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
837322494
City
Atlanta
State
GA
Country
United States
Zip Code
30302
Hopkins, William D; Li, Xiang; Crow, Tim et al. (2017) Vertex- and atlas-based comparisons in measures of cortical thickness, gyrification and white matter volume between humans and chimpanzees. Brain Struct Funct 222:229-245
Hopkins, William D; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Coulon, Olivier et al. (2017) Motor skill for tool-use is associated with asymmetries in Broca's area and the motor hand area of the precentral gyrus in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Behav Brain Res 318:71-81
Muntané, Gerard; Santpere, Gabriel; Verendeev, Andrey et al. (2017) Interhemispheric gene expression differences in the cerebral cortex of humans and macaque monkeys. Brain Struct Funct 222:3241-3254
Hopkins, William D; Coulon, Oliver; Meguerditchian, Adrien et al. (2017) Genetic Factors and Orofacial Motor Learning Selectively Influence Variability in Central Sulcus Morphology in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Neurosci 37:5475-5483
Verendeev, Andrey; Sherwood, Chet C (2017) HUMAN BRAIN EVOLUTION. Curr Opin Behav Sci 16:41-45
Hopkins, William D; Hopkins, Anna M; Misiura, Maria et al. (2016) Sex differences in the relationship between planum temporale asymmetry and corpus callosum morphology in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A combined MRI and DTI analysis. Neuropsychologia 93:325-334
Bianchi, Serena; Reyes, Laura D; Hopkins, William D et al. (2016) Neocortical grey matter distribution underlying voluntary, flexible vocalizations in chimpanzees. Sci Rep 6:34733
Raghanti, Mary Ann; Edler, Melissa K; Stephenson, Alexa R et al. (2016) Human-specific increase of dopaminergic innervation in a striatal region associated with speech and language: A comparative analysis of the primate basal ganglia. J Comp Neurol 524:2117-29
Mahovetz, L M; Young, L J; Hopkins, W D (2016) The influence of AVPR1A genotype on individual differences in behaviors during a mirror self-recognition task in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Genes Brain Behav 15:445-52
Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P et al. (2016) Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 11:413-22

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