Hemispheric specialization refers to lateralized motor, perceptual and cognitive functions to the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Studies have shown that individual variation in patterns of neuroanatomical and behavioral asymmetries are associated with various clinical problems such as major psychoses (schizophrenia), neurodevelopmental disorders such as William's syndrome, autism and stuttering and learning disabilities such as dyslexia and specific language impairment. The long-term goals of the proposed studies are to identify the genetic and non-genetic mechanisms that influence the development of hemispheric specialization in primates. One aspect of the proposal will assess the independent and potential interactive effects of genetic and early social rearing factors on the development of brain asymmetries in primates. Notably, heritability estimates in brain asymmetries will be computed in genetically related individuals that have been reared together or apart during the first three years life. In a second part of the proposed studies, post-mortem brains will be obtained from primates and cytoarchitectonic analyses will be performed for 8 distinct Brodmann's regions. Individual cytoarchitectonic maps will be derived for each ape and these will be registered to a template brain. Subsequently probabilistic maps of these regions will be created and applied to a large sample of in vivo MRI scans (N >290) registered to the same template in order to estimate grey matter volumes of each cytoarchtectonic region. Heritabilty estimates of the grey matter volumes will then computed in the entire sample in relation to known pedigrees. Lastly, analyses will be performed to examine whether variation in asymmetries in both in vivo and post-mortem brains are associated with oro- facial motor control among related and unrelated individuals. In particular, these analyses aim to assess whether developing oro-facial motor control associated with the production of intentional vocalizations results in cortical reorganization within the primary and premotor cortex. Collectively the results of this study will provide critical information on the influence of genetic and early rearing factors on both the development and evolution of hemispheric specialization in primates.

Public Health Relevance

Individual differences in hemispheric specialization have been linked to a variety of psychological and neurological disorders and there is a need for continued studies on identifying factors that influence the development of functional and neuroanatomical asymmetries in primates. The goal of the proposed studies is to assess the influence of genetics and early social rearing experiences on the development of brain asymmetries in primates.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS073134-05
Application #
8725748
Study Section
Cognitive Neuroscience Study Section (COG)
Program Officer
Chen, Daofen
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
5
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
Georgia State University
Department
Neurosciences
Type
Schools of Arts and Sciences
DUNS #
City
Atlanta
State
GA
Country
United States
Zip Code
30302
Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P et al. (2016) Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 11:413-22
Raghanti, Mary Ann; Edler, Melissa K; Stephenson, Alexa R et al. (2016) Human-specific increase of dopaminergic innervation in a striatal region associated with speech and language: A comparative analysis of the primate basal ganglia. J Comp Neurol 524:2117-29
Hopkins, William D; Hopkins, Anna M; Misiura, Maria et al. (2016) Sex differences in the relationship between planum temporale asymmetry and corpus callosum morphology in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): A combined MRI and DTI analysis. Neuropsychologia 93:325-334
Hopkins, William D; Li, Xiang; Crow, Tim et al. (2016) Vertex- and atlas-based comparisons in measures of cortical thickness, gyrification and white matter volume between humans and chimpanzees. Brain Struct Funct :
Bianchi, Serena; Reyes, Laura D; Hopkins, William D et al. (2016) Neocortical grey matter distribution underlying voluntary, flexible vocalizations in chimpanzees. Sci Rep 6:34733
Gómez-Robles, Aida; Hopkins, William D; Schapiro, Steven J et al. (2015) Relaxed genetic control of cortical organization in human brains compared with chimpanzees. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:14799-804
Meguerditchian, Adrien; Phillips, Kimberley A; Chapelain, Amandine et al. (2015) Handedness for Unimanual Grasping in 564 Great Apes: The Effect on Grip Morphology and a Comparison with Hand Use for a Bimanual Coordinated Task. Front Psychol 6:1794
Latzman, Robert D; Freeman, Hani D; Schapiro, Steven J et al. (2015) The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). J Pers Soc Psychol 109:889-900
Latzman, Robert D; Hecht, Lisa K; Freeman, Hani D et al. (2015) Neuroanatomical correlates of personality in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Associations between personality and frontal cortex. Neuroimage 123:63-71
Phillips, Kimberley A; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Smaers, Jeroen B et al. (2015) The corpus callosum in primates: processing speed of axons and the evolution of hemispheric asymmetry. Proc Biol Sci 282:20151535

Showing the most recent 10 out of 45 publications