Microhemorrhages and vasogenic edema are pathological phenomena that occur in both cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In CBVD these can occur throughout the brain, yet are most frequently subcortical. In AD they usually occur at sites of vascular amyloid deposition. Given that CBVD and AD are not always mutually exclusive but often co-exist it is important that we understand the mechanisms of microhemorrhages and vasogenic edema. We hypothesize that inflammatory-mediated activation of matrix metalloproteinases leads to degeneration of tight junction proteins and basement membrane proteins resulting in vascular leakage producing microhemorrhages and/or vasogenic edema. Our goal for this proposal is to model CBVD in mouse models of amyloid deposition to produce vasogenic edema and microhemorrhage and determine the role of the MMP system in their onset and the impact CBVD has on response to amyloid-targeted therapies. We will assess inflammatory changes and activation of the MMP systems as mechanisms for these abnormalities. Importantly, we propose to acquire MR FLAIR and Susceptibility Weighted (SWI) images to assess vasogenic edema and microhemorrhage as well as any other brain changes occurring through the course of the studies. Immediately prior to tissue harvest we will acquire arteral spin label (ASL) scans to measure brain perfusion and thus enable a comparison of the density of microhemorrhages and brain health. Additionally, we will acquire contrast enhanced T1-weighted scans following administration of Magnevist and Galbumin contrast agents to assess vascular leakage. We propose to use AAV and pharmacological agents to inhibit MMPs directly, or inhibit the inflammatory signals thought to be increasing MMP activity. We will also examine whether the efficacy and side-effect profile of two A?- targeted therapies in trials are influenced by the presence of CBVD in amyloid-depositing mice. The overall goal of our proposal is to determine the time-course of CBVD pathology when we generate CBVD in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, determine the roles of inflammation and MMPs in the generation of microhemorrhage and vasogenic edema, and finally to establish the effect CBVD has on the response to A?-targeted therapies. We believe that CBVD is common co- morbidity with AD that influences the pathogenesis of AD and response to therapy.

Public Health Relevance

Cerebrovascular disease commonly occurs with aging, as does Alzheimer's disease. In fact, it is estimated that 40% of Alzheimer's patients also have cerebrovascular disease. Our research proposal will examine the impact cerebrovascular disease has on the progression of amyloid pathology, a brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Our overall goal is to enhance our understanding of the relationship between cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease and how one can affect the other.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01NS079637-03
Application #
8641738
Study Section
Clinical Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumors Study Section (CNBT)
Program Officer
Corriveau, Roderick A
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2014
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
University of Kentucky
Department
Other Health Professions
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
City
Lexington
State
KY
Country
United States
Zip Code
40506
Weekman, Erica M; Sudduth, Tiffany L; Abner, Erin L et al. (2014) Transition from an M1 to a mixed neuroinflammatory phenotype increases amyloid deposition in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. J Neuroinflammation 11:127
Sudduth, Tiffany L; Greenstein, Abigail; Wilcock, Donna M (2013) Intracranial injection of Gammagard, a human IVIg, modulates the inflammatory response of the brain and lowers A* in APP/PS1 mice along a different time course than anti-A* antibodies. J Neurosci 33:9684-92
Wilcock, Donna M; Griffin, W Sue T (2013) Down's syndrome, neuroinflammation, and Alzheimer neuropathogenesis. J Neuroinflammation 10:84
Sudduth, Tiffany L; Powell, David K; Smith, Charles D et al. (2013) Induction of hyperhomocysteinemia models vascular dementia by induction of cerebral microhemorrhages and neuroinflammation. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33:708-15