Malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. In the subtropical Yunnan Province and the tropical Hainan Island of China, malaria has been the most endemic with high transmission of both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. However, most of the attention in terms of research and interventions have been focused in Africa and Southeast Asia, very few studies of malaria in China have been conducted. Because of extensive use, chloroquine (CQ) has now lost its efficacy due to the emergence of resistant strains in most parts of the world. Meanwhile, suspension of the use of CQ has resulted in reappearance of CQ sensitivity. However, there were differences in the evolution of CQ resistance between parasites from Yunnan and Hainan, the exact mechanism needs to be investigated. Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) targets the dhfr and dhps genes of P. falciparum, and point mutations that confer resistance have been widely reported worldwide. Documenting the identity and extent of SP resistance is also critical for policy decisions regarding antimalarial drugs. In addition, P. vivax causes a large burden of morbidity in the world including China but traditionally has been understudied. Based on these, our long-term goal of this proposal is 1) to identify single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and characterize the geographic distribution of genetic diversity, population structure, and haplotype variability at drug resistant loci of P. falciparum from Yunnan and Hainan, China, 2) to examine the geographic population structure, levels of genetic diversity of P. vivax using microsatellite and SNP, and 3) to yield valuable information for making more effective malaria control policies in China. In the past several years we have developed the molecular methods to study the genetics, population diversity, and evolution of malaria parasites, and have done some preliminary studies on malaria field isolates from Yunnan and Hainan using genetic markers, thus enabling us to study the molecular epidemiology of these important malaria parasites in this proposal.
The specific aims are to: 1. Determine genetic polymorphisms associated with CQ resistance (CQR) in P. falciparum field isolates from Yunnan and Hainan provinces, China. 2. Determine the point mutation prevalence in the dhfr (pyrimethamine drug resistance) and dhps (sulfadoxine drug resistance) genes associated with SP resistance in P. falciparum field isolates from Yunnan and Hainan provinces, China. 3. Assess the changes of P. vivax genotypes using pvcsp, pvmsp1, pvmsp3-? genes, and microsatellite markers and determine the geographic structure and specific epidemiological characteristics of P. vivax transmission in Yunnan and Hainan, China. 1
The project will be of significant benefit to public health programs aimed at identifying and combating drug-resistant malaria, and have the potential to benefit the health of a substantial proportion of the world's population. The data will provide valuable information for extending the life span of individual antimalarial drugs and developing more appropriate malaria control policies in China.
|Huang, Bo; Huang, Shiguang; Su, Xin-zhuan et al. (2014) Molecular surveillance of pvdhfr, pvdhps, and pvmdr-1 mutations in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Yunnan and Anhui provinces of China. Malar J 13:346|
|Huang, Bo; Huang, Shiguang; Su, Xin-zhuan et al. (2014) Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax population in Anhui province of China. Malar J 13:13|
|Huang, Bo; Liu, Man; Huang, Shiguang et al. (2013) Expression of Tim-1 and Tim-3 in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection. Parasitol Res 112:2713-9|