A fundamental gap exists in understanding the cellular mechanisms that initiate and maintain neuropathic pain. This gap represents an important problem because current analgesic drugs rarely provide sufficient efficacy without serious side effects. The long-term goal is to understand the mechanisms that lead to injury-induced central sensitization and establish clinically relevant therapeutic targets for chronic pai. The objective in this application is to evaluate the contribution glutamate receptor subtypes to dorsal root stimulation (DRS)-evoked Ca2+ transients in the dorsal horn, and correlate enhanced Ca2+ responses with the magnitude of pain-like behavior. Based on preliminary data suggesting that glutamate-evoked Ca2+ responses in mouse spinal cord slices are potentiated after nerve injury, the central hypothesis is that nerve injury increases AMPA receptor signaling in the dorsal horn, leading to increases in [Ca2+]i that results in central sensitization and neuropathic pain. The rationale for the proposed project is that [Ca2+]i in dorsal horn neurons is essential for central sensitization and pain hypersensitivity. The central hypothesis will be teste by pursuing three specific aims:
AIM 1 tests the hypothesis that glutamate-mediated activation of neuronal ionotropic AMPA receptors drives Ca2+ signaling. Electrophysiological recordings and real-time fluorescent labeling of astrocytes will be used to evaluate the cell types that respond to dorsal root stimulation (DRS) with a rise in [Ca2+]i. Next, the relative contribution of glutamate receptor subtypes will be determined by quantifying DRS-evoked [Ca2+]i transients in the presence of selective antagonists.
AIM 2 tests the hypothesis that peripheral nerve injury potentiates DRS-evoked Ca2+ responses, and this will correlate with the magnitude of hyperalgesia. To allow for a correlation analysis between behavior and [Ca2+]i, a variant model of nerve injury has been developed that gradually elicits robust allodynia in 1 week and then resolves in 4 weeks. Behavioral hyperalgesia will be evaluated and compared to DRS-evoked [Ca2+]i in spinal cord slices from sham, traditional and variant nerve injured animals sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 d after injury.
AIM 3 tests the hypothesis that PKM? mediates SNI-induced increases in hyperalgesia, Ca2+ signaling and AP frequency in dorsal horn. We will administer multiple PKM? inhibitors to sham and SNI mice and measure pain- like behavior, Ca2+ transients and/or AP frequency. Based on our preliminary results, we predict that PKM? blockade will reverse injury-induced hyperalgesia, increases in [Ca2+]i and AP frequency. This project employs innovative wide-field calcium imaging simultaneously from numerous cells in spinal cord slices from adult mice. The proposed research is significant because it reveals the Ca2+ channels that regulate DRS-evoked Ca2+ transients, and is a critical first step in understanding nerve injury-induced potentiation of neuronal Ca2+ signaling. Ultimately, this knowledge will establish clinically relevant therapeutic targets for alleviating chronic pain.
Chronic pain management is a major scientific and health care challenge, as current analgesic drugs rarely provide sufficient efficacy in the absence of serious side effects. This project is relevant to NINDS's mission because it will 1) determine mechanisms that lead to injury-induced central sensitization and 2) establish clinically relevant therapeutic targets for alleviating chronic pain. This Research Plan employs highly innovative wide-field calcium imaging from numerous cells in a single spinal cord slice from adult mice.