Depression rates skyrocket in adolescence, and adolescent-onset depression is associated with increased risk for depression, substance use, suicide, and work-related disability in adulthood. Consistent with NIH objectives of identifying the biobehavioral causes and prospective trajectories of mental disorders, it is imperative that we identify mechanisms that increase individuals'risk for depression. The long-term goal of this study is to identify the pathways linking early risk factors with adolescent-onset depression;this research will provide a foundation for identification of at-risk youth and the development of interventions to prevent the onset or progression of depression. Specifically, the current study will identify pathways linking high trait negative affectivity (NA) in early adolescence with intermediate biological and cognitive risk factors to predict the rise in depressive disorders in adolescence. We hypothesize that high NA in early adolescence will predict abnormalities in several domains that may constitute intermediate pathways mediating the effects of NA on adolescent-onset depression, particularly (1) abnormal physiological reactivity to stress, particularly poor vagal control and (2) abnormal cognitive processing of stress-related stimuli, particularly selective attention toward negative stimuli;difficulty disengaging attention from stress-related information (e.g. rumination);and negative appraisals of stressful events. We further hypothesize that these abnormalities will prospectively predict depressive symptoms and disorders in adolescence. Both a prospective and a cross-sectional strategy will be used with assessments at screening, baseline, 6-months and 12-months. Youth and parent will complete measures of trait NA and depressive symptoms at screening to determine study eligibility. Youth who are nondepressed at screening with either high-NA (high-risk group) or low-NA (low- risk group) will be invited to participate in the Time 1 laboratory induced stress paradigm before, during, and after which physiological reactivity, state NA, and state cognitive processing will be assessed. Youth and parents will report on depressive symptoms and diagnoses at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. This prospective design will allow us to test if the effect of trait NA on adolescent-onset depression is mediated by, physiological stress reactivity and/or cognitive processing biases. Public health relevance: This research will provide important information about how abnormal emotional, physiological, and cognitive responses to stress may predict the development of depression in adolescence. Knowledge about these risk factors is essential for (1) identifying youth at high risk for adolescent-onset depression and (2) developing effective early preventive interventions for these high-risk youth.

Public Health Relevance

This research will provide important information about how abnormal emotional, physiological, and cognitive responses to stress may predict the development of depression in adolescence. Knowledge about these risk factors is essential for (1) identifying youth at high risk for adolescent-onset depression and (2) developing effective early preventive interventions for these high-risk youth. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: This research will provide important information about how abnormal emotional, physiological, and cognitive responses to stress may predict the development of depression in adolescence. Knowledge about these risk factors is essential for (1) identifying youth at high risk for adolescent-onset depression and (2) developing effective early preventive interventions for these high-risk youth.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Academic Research Enhancement Awards (AREA) (R15)
Project #
1R15MH098294-01A1
Application #
8496432
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-RPHB-P (90))
Program Officer
Garriock, Holly A
Project Start
2013-04-01
Project End
2016-03-31
Budget Start
2013-04-01
Budget End
2016-03-31
Support Year
1
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$403,459
Indirect Cost
$112,732
Name
Seattle Pacific University
Department
Psychology
Type
Other Domestic Higher Education
DUNS #
071853477
City
Seattle
State
WA
Country
United States
Zip Code
98119