Both oxidative damage to proteins and cytoskeletal abnormalities have been detected in Alzheimer's disease. In neurons containing neurofibrillary tangles, a lesion characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, the number of microtubules is reduced by 50%. Furthermore, it is very likely that the reactive species peroxynitrite anion and hypochlorous acid are formed in neurons that contain neurofibrillary tangles because markers of oxidative damage including nitrotyrosine and 3-chlorotyrosine are present. Our in vitro work with microtubule proteins including tubulin, tau and microtubule-associated protein- 2 shows that cysteine oxidation by peroxynitrite anion correlates with a loss of function. Microtubule proteins may be more susceptible to damage by oxidants because their cysteine thiols are abundant, accessible and reactive due to their local microenvironment.
The specific aims of this proposal are: 1) to expand our methodology to study tubulin cysteine modifications;2) to study the interactions of myeloperoxidase and methionine sulfoxide reductase with microtubules;3) to continue our investigation of protein S-glutathionylation using modified glutathiones and GS-TNB;and 4) to explore redox reactions between tubulin and GAPDH, a glycolytic enzyme. Studies examining the effects of cellular oxidants on microtubule proteins are essential because they provide a starting point for understanding how reactive species including peroxynitrite anion, nitroxyl, hypochlorous acid and chloramines could jeopardize cell viability in vivo. It has been shown conclusively that these oxidants are produced in neurons and that there is a positive correlation between increased oxidation and aging. Cytoskeletal proteins like tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins are among the most abundant proteins in neurons;thus, they are likely targets for modification by oxidants. In addition to our interest in the potential for cellular damage by oxidants, we are intrigued by the possibility of redox regulation of microtubule dynamics in vivo.

Public Health Relevance

Strong evidence links increased oxidative damage with the development of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Reactive molecules, derived from the oxygen we breathe, cause reversible and irreversible oxidative damage to biological macromolecules including proteins, lipids and DNA. Researchers must consider and assess the effects of reactive molecules on abundant brain proteins because it is very likely that many proteins are damaged as we age.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Academic Research Enhancement Awards (AREA) (R15)
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Synapses, Cytoskeleton and Trafficking Study Section (SYN)
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Corriveau, Roderick A
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College of William and Mary
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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Landino, Lisa M; Hagedorn, Tara D; Kennett, Kelly L (2014) Evidence for thiol/disulfide exchange reactions between tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken) 71:707-18
Clark, Hillary M; Hagedorn, Tara D; Landino, Lisa M (2014) Hypothiocyanous acid oxidation of tubulin cysteines inhibits microtubule polymerization. Arch Biochem Biophys 541:67-73
Landino, Lisa M; Hagedorn, Tara D; Kim, Shannon B et al. (2011) Inhibition of tubulin polymerization by hypochlorous acid and chloramines. Free Radic Biol Med 50:1000-8
Landino, Lisa M; Brown, Carolyn M; Edson, Carolyn A et al. (2010) Fluorescein-labeled glutathione to study protein S-glutathionylation. Anal Biochem 402:102-4
Landino, Lisa M; Mall, Catherine B; Nicklay, Joshua J et al. (2008) Oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid, by the biologically relevant oxidants peroxynitrite anion, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid. Nitric Oxide 18:11-8
Landino, Lisa M; Koumas, Maria T; Mason, Courtney E et al. (2007) Modification of tubulin cysteines by nitric oxide and nitroxyl donors alters tubulin polymerization activity. Chem Res Toxicol 20:1693-700
Landino, Lisa M; Koumas, Maria T; Mason, Courtney E et al. (2006) Ascorbic acid reduction of microtubule protein disulfides and its relevance to protein S-nitrosylation assays. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 340:347-52
Landino, Lisa M; Moynihan, Katherine L; Todd, Jonathan V et al. (2004) Modulation of the redox state of tubulin by the glutathione/glutaredoxin reductase system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 314:555-60
Landino, Lisa M; Skreslet, Tabor E; Alston, Jane A (2004) Cysteine oxidation of tau and microtubule-associated protein-2 by peroxynitrite: modulation of microtubule assembly kinetics by the thioredoxin reductase system. J Biol Chem 279:35101-5
Landino, Lisa M; Robinson, Sarah H; Skreslet, Tabor E et al. (2004) Redox modulation of tau and microtubule-associated protein-2 by the glutathione/glutaredoxin reductase system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323:112-7

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