The research proposed here will use archival data and multi-level/hierarchal spatial modeling to examine the geography of alcohol outlets and violence, over time, in the city of Boston. We will determine whether and how place matters in regard to the relationship between alcohol outlet (type and density) and violence. Using 10 years of data (1996-2006) from the Boston emergency medical services (EMS), EMS patient care data, US census data, Massachusetts alcohol beverage control commissions (MABCC) data on alcohol outlet type and location and Boston police records on drug related arrests, we will investigate the following specific aims: 1) Geographically determine hot spots using spatial regression, over time, (1996-2006) of penetrating trauma, in the Boston area. Date, time, type of trauma. Produce related maps. 2) Determine if there is a relationship between geographic location of penetrating trauma (place of EMS pickup) and alcohol outlets (type and density) and whether this changes over time and varies/is moderated by its relation to measures of social disadvantage and alcohol availability: a) identify hotspots of alcohol density and penetrating trauma;b) determine if retail drug activity modifies the relationship between alcohol outlets and rates of penetrating trauma. 3) Determine, consistent with niche theory, if there are violence hot spot areas with more types of alcohol outlets. The role of social disorganization as a confounder and/or modifier of this relationship will also be assessed. The goal of this project is to determine how place based, environmental measures such as alcohol outlets and drug markets are related to rates of violence. We will examine changes overtime and include changes in drug market locations (as measured by the proxy, drug arrest locations). The overall approach is informed by niche and social disorganization theory in which, density and type of alcohol outlets may allow for a range of outlet choices, the stratification of drinkers into subgroups and provide a place for problem drinking to occur. Information obtained from this research could help better inform public health and policy decisions regarding alcohol outlet zoning, advertising and law enforcement.
The goal of this project is to determine how place-based environmental measures such as alcohol outlets and drug markets are related to rates of violence. Information obtained from this research could help better inform public health and policy decisions regarding alcohol outlet zoning, advertising and law enforcement.
|Lipton, Robert; Yang, Xiaowen; Braga, Anthony A et al. (2013) The geography of violence, alcohol outlets, and drug arrests in Boston. Am J Public Health 103:657-64|