The eld of medical x-ray imaging experienced a digital revolution in the early 2000s, with the spreading of digital radiography (DR) systems which are based on active matrix at panel imagers (AMFPI). Since then we have seen rapid development and clinical translation of large-area AMFPI based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) active matrix technology. Because of their compact size, rapid image readout and excellent image quality, AMFPI is being used not only for traditional x-ray imaging modalities such as general radiography and uoroscopy, but also in tomographic imaging applications including cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital tomosynthesis. It is believed that AMFPI will become the dominant detector technology for x-ray imaging. However before AMFPI can equal the performance of the x-ray image intensi er (XRII) in uoroscopy, they have one major diculty to overcome: producing x-ray quantum noise limited images at very low dose, such as in the dark part of a uoroscopy image (0.1 R per frame). Our hypothesis is that an indirect-conversion x-ray at-panel imager with avalanche gain and cadmium selenide (CdSe) photoelectric conversion layer will provide an enormous dynamic range and eciency that permits x-ray quantum noise limited performance from a single x-ray photon level in low-dose uoroscopy all the way to high dose radiography. The objective of this proposal is therefore to fabricate and test a prototype high-eciency at-panel x-ray imaging detector with avalanche gain. Conceptu- ally the proposed detector employs four major components: (1) a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator to convert x-rays to optical photons; (2) an ultra-high eciency CdSe photoelectric conversion layer to convert the optical image to charge; (3) eld shaping avalanche amorphous sele- nium (a-Se) photoconductor, called eld shaping HARP (High-gain Avalanche Rushing amorphous Photoconductor), to amplify charge via avalanche multiplication gain; and (4) a large area active matrix (AM) thin lm transistor (TFT) array to read out the image electronically in real-time. The proposed detector is known as eld shaping SHARP-AMFPI (Scintillator-HARP Active Matrix Flat-Panel Imager). Successful development of eld-shaping SHARP-AMFPI will lead to the clinical-translation ready, practical low-dose x-ray imaging technology, which will be the rst ever large area solid-state detector with stable avalanche gain. 1
s/Relevance In the proposed work we will investigate the feasibility of a new indirect conversion avalanche detector structure. This technology enables the rst development of large-area solid-state detector with stable avalanche gain through two key innovations. 1) A eld shap- ing multi-well structure is utilized for creating low- eld regions at interfaces and localizing the high- eld avalanche region in the middle of the amorphous selenium photoconductor (i.e., away from the interfaces). This solves the large-area reliability problem with existing prototype avalanche detectors that breakdown due to the presence of high electric eld at the interfaces. 2) Ultra-High eciency Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) is used as the photoelectric conversion layer to further enhance the low-dose sensitivity of the detector, in addition to having avalanche gain. This technology will have a high impact on the development of large- area at panel detectors for low dose and high resolution x-ray imaging applications, such as mammography, cardiac, small animal imaging, and cone-beam computed tomography.