Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a class of man-made compounds developed after World War II for use as plasticizers, wetting agents, and as emulsifiers during industrial manufacturing processes. Two of the most common PFAAs are the 8-carbon chain chemicals perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA or C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS or C8 sulfonate [C8S]). Recent, growing concern about possible health effects of PFAAs is the result of evidence that: PFAAs have a long half-life and environmental persistence;animal studies suggesting that PFAAs have deleterious effects, including carcinogenesis, and other disruptions to normal physiology;evidence of their widespread presence in human sera;and human population studies that have provided early evidence for potential exposure- related health effects. In the United States, the EPA- led PFOA Stewardship Program aims to eliminate PFOA from all emissions and products by 2015. In the European Union, the use of PFOS and derivatives was stopped in 2000 and banned in 2008, though PFOA use remains largely unregulated. As a result of this regulation, industrial manufacturers and users of PFOA or PFOS have needed to develop alternate chemicals and processes, and non-8-carbon chain PFAAs have emerged as replacement chemicals. However, almost no publically available scientific evidence exists regarding the human or environmental safety of these chemicals. The primary objective of this proposal is to determine the associations between non-8-carbon perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and serum parameters of lipid, liver, and kidney function in children. We are requesting funding to perform secondary analysis on data collected as part of the C8 Health Project, a community cohort study with 69,030 participants including more than 12,000 children. For the convenience of readers of this application, the following table summarizes the key abbreviations used throughout this application: Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAA) Abbreviation Full Name Carbon Length PFHxA Perfluorohexanoic acid C6 PFHS Ammonium perfluorohexane sulfonate C6S/C6 Sulfonate PFHpA Perfluoroheptanoic acid C7 PFOA Perfluorooctanoic acid C8 PFOS Perfluorooctane sulfonate acid C8S/C8 Sulfonate PFNA Perfluorononanoic acid C9 PFDA Perfluorodecanoic acid C10 Clinical Health Parameters Abbreviation Full Name LDL Cholesterol Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL Cholesterol High-density lipoprotein cholesterol AlkPhos Alkaline Phosphatase ALT Alanine aminotransferase AST Aspartate aminotransferase BiliDirect Direct Bilirubin BiliTotal Total Bilirubin GGT Gamma glutamyltransferase LDH Lactate dehydrogenase BUN Blood urea nitrogen
NARRATIVE The primary objective of this proposal is to determine the associations between non-8-carbon perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and serum parameters of lipid, liver, and kidney function in children. We are requesting funding to perform secondary analysis on data collected as part of the C8 Health Project, a community cohort study with 69,030 participants, including more than 12,000 children, created pursuant to the pre-trial settlement of a class action lawsuit filed after PFOA contamination of drinking water supplies along the mid-Ohio River valley.