Developmental Programming (DP) defined as - responses to challenges in a critical window of fetal or neonatal life that alter normal development with resulting persistent effects on phenotype, modifies phenotype by gene-environment interaction. In rodents, maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) in pregnancy (P) leads to fetal nutrient reduction (FNR), which may be compounded by restriction in lactation (L) predisposing offspring (OFF) to obesity and other chronic conditions. OFF of MNR mothers in P develop a thrifty phenotype to better survive if poor post-natal nutrition follows FNR. - A """"""""predictive adaptive response."""""""" FNR in rodents, mismatched by excess (or even normal) neonatal nutrition also predisposes OFF to chronic disease. In an R24 addressing MNR (MNR R24) we developed baboon OFF cohorts of 1) control (CTR) baboons fed ad lib in P and L - CTR/CTR (P diet first, L second) and 2) MNR baboons fed 70% global weight adjusted CTR (MNR/MNR). This R24 only finished in June 2009. In the year since, 11 grant applications have been submitted - six successfully. A second R24 to develop cohorts of OFF of mothers fed a high energy diet (HED) producing dietary induced maternal obesity (MO) in P and L (MO/MO, MO R24) began February 2010.
Specific Aim : To develop cohorts of nonhuman primate (NHP) OFF exposed to nutrient mismatch (MM) in fetal and neonatal life - MNR/CTR and MNR/MO as a multi-investigator resource to study mechanisms (MM R24). We are committed to developing cohorts to compare mechanisms underlying human DP. We now have three cohorts- CTR/CTR, MNR/MNR, MO/MO. Of the six other potential cohorts three, CTR/MNR, CTR/MO and MO/MNR hold little interest. We propose to develop cohorts of MNR/CTR and MNR/MO because, as the several letters we include show, mismatch is central to DP- two authorities even entitle their book Mismatch. Approach: We control food intake, maintaining normal social and physical activity. The recently funded MO R24 provides contemporaneous CTR pregnancies for this MM R24 if funded - a 33% saving in cost. During P baboons of similar phenotype will be fed 70% of CTR (MNR). After birth, MNR mothers are fed ad lib either chow or HED. After weaning all OFF eat chow. Thirteen new letters (all from outside San Antonio, 4 outside USA) are added to the 24 prior letters showing wide-spread interest in studying these cohorts. We also separately provide 13 letters from leading DP epidemiologists supporting NHP work. Environment, Investigators and Innovation: PIs and SFBR provide a unique combination of facilities, animals and expertise for this work. PIs have held collaborative NHLBI, NICHD, NEI, NINCDS, NIA NIMH, NIDDK funding since 1976. Extensive MM studies exist on altricial species but not precocial NHP in which key pre- natal and neonatal environmental factors - P02, glucose, hormones are very different. The proposed MM R24 plus three on-going cohorts provide novel opportunities in DP relevant to multiple NIH institutes (NHLBI, NIDDK, NICHD, NIAID, NEI, NCI, NIA, NINDS, NIMH and NIEHS). Resource sharing: We will archive, advertise and share this resource.
Poor maternal nutrition is prevalent in the USA where food is abundant postnatally. Animal studies show that mismatched fetal and neonatal nutrition predisposes offspring to chronic diseases (diabetes and obesity). There are no data from nonhuman primates to translate to humans. Data obtained will enable development of diagnostic, preventative and therapeutic strategies.