Escherichia coli O157:H7 is the most common infectious cause of bloody diarrhea, or hemorrhagic colitis (HC), in the U.S, and the incidence of non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is about half that of O157:H7. Moreover, the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a sequela of O157:H7 in particular but also other STEC infection, is the most frequent basis for acute kidney failure in U.S. children. E. coli O157:H7 belongs to a subset of STEC called Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) that not only make Shiga toxin (Stx) type 1 or type 2 (or a variant thereof) but also harbor pO157 (or a related plasmid) and express the adhesin intimin, an outer membrane protein encoded by the eae gene contained within a pathogenicity island called the locus of enterocyte effacement. Intimin engages its bacterially-expressed translocated receptor Tir and also binds, albeit less avidly, to the eukaryotic receptor nucleolin. We recently found that Stx2 increased the level of nucleolin on the surface of HEp2 cells and, possibly as a consequence of such a toxin-mediated alteration of the cell surface of enterocytes, an Stx2-expressing EHEC O157 strain colonized the intestines of mice better than did its isogenic Stx2-negative mutant. The long-term goals of this project are to define at the molecular, cellular, and whole animal levels the pathogenic mechanisms by which STEC cause disease and to test strategies to prevent and treat these illnesses.
The specific aims are to: 1. investigate whether both Stx1 and Stx2 contribute to the development of kidney lesions and/or other HUSrelated clinical features when produced from the same E. coli O157:H7 strain after oral inoculation of Dutch belted rabbits, a newly described model of HUS;2. examine the basis for the enhanced virulence in orallyinfected, streptomycin-treated mice of STEC strains that produce the Stx2d-intestinal mucus activatable toxin (Stx2dact), an Stx2 variant that when produced by eae-negative STEC strains has been associated with bloody diarrhea and HUS in European patients;3. continue to probe the role of Stx2 in the establishment of infection by E. coli O157:H7 in the murine gut, measure the impact of Stx2 on nucleolin expression in vivo, and test whether Stx1 can augment O157:H7 colonization;and, 4. determine whether Stx2 modulates nucleolin expression and/or distribution in epithelial cells and whether such changes are linked to Stx-induced apoptosis of intoxicated cells. Public health relevance: Due to the potential severity of O157:H7 infection and because the organism has a very low 50% infectious dose and can spread from person to person, E.coli O157:H7 is classified as a category B biological agent. As an outcome of this project, we will further delineate the steps by which this pathogen causes disease, which, in turn, may facilitate the creation of more targeted strategies to interfere with the infectious and intoxication processes.

Public Health Relevance

Attachment) Due to the potential severity of O157:H7 infection and because the organism has a very low 50% infectious dose and can spread from person to person, E.coli O157:H7 is classified as a category B biological agent. As an outcome of this project, we will further delineate the steps by which this pathogen causes disease, which, in turn, may facilitate the creation of more targeted strategies to interfere with the infectious and intoxication processes.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award (R37)
Project #
5R37AI020148-30
Application #
8272663
Study Section
Bacterial Pathogenesis Study Section (BACP)
Program Officer
Baqar, Shahida
Project Start
1983-08-01
Project End
2013-05-31
Budget Start
2012-06-01
Budget End
2013-05-31
Support Year
30
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$372,683
Indirect Cost
$127,658
Name
Henry M. Jackson Fdn for the Adv Mil/Med
Department
Type
DUNS #
144676566
City
Bethesda
State
MD
Country
United States
Zip Code
20817
Russo, Lisa M; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Smith, Michael J et al. (2014) Comparisons of native Shiga toxins (Stxs) type 1 and 2 with chimeric toxins indicate that the source of the binding subunit dictates degree of toxicity. PLoS One 9:e93463
Russo, L M; Melton-Celsa, A R; Smith, M A et al. (2014) Oral intoxication of mice with Shiga toxin type 2a (Stx2a) and protection by anti-Stx2a monoclonal antibody 11E10. Infect Immun 82:1213-21
Gray, Miranda D; Lampel, Keith A; Strockbine, Nancy A et al. (2014) Clinical isolates of Shiga toxin 1a-producing Shigella flexneri with an epidemiological link to recent travel to HispaƱiola. Emerg Infect Dis 20:1669-77
Zangari, T; Melton-Celsa, A R; Panda, A et al. (2014) Enhanced virulence of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 spinach-associated outbreak strain in two animal models is associated with higher levels of Stx2 production after induction with ciprofloxacin. Infect Immun 82:4968-77
Bunger, Joshua C; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D (2013) Shiga toxin type 2dact displays increased binding to globotriaosylceramide in vitro and increased lethality in mice after activation by elastase. Toxins (Basel) 5:2074-92
Zumbrun, Steven D; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Smith, Mark A et al. (2013) Dietary choice affects Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 colonization and disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:E2126-33
Zangari, Tonia; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Panda, Aruna et al. (2013) Virulence of the Shiga toxin type 2-expressing Escherichia coli O104:H4 German outbreak isolate in two animal models. Infect Immun 81:1562-74
Mohawk, Krystle L; O'Brien, Alison D (2011) Mouse models of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and shiga toxin injection. J Biomed Biotechnol 2011:258185
Mohawk, Krystle L; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Robinson, Cory M et al. (2010) Neutralizing antibodies to Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2) reduce colonization of mice by Stx2-expressing Escherichia coli O157:H7. Vaccine 28:4777-85
Mohawk, Krystle L; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; Zangari, Tonia et al. (2010) Pathogenesis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 86-24 following oral infection of BALB/c mice with an intact commensal flora. Microb Pathog 48:131-42

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