This competing renewal proposes to evaluate the impact of recent Mexican drug policy reform on HIV-associated risk factors and protective factors among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. In Aug/2009, Mexico approved a law that partially deregulates possession of small, specified amounts of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and marijuana for personal use. The law specifies that after this law is enacted in Aug/2010, police apprehending persons who possess sub-threshold amounts of any of these drugs will be released with a record noting that they received 'no penal action';however, upon a third apprehension, they will be required to enter drug treatment, or go to jail. States are required to have completed drug treatment expansion by Aug/2012. The law has been met with praise and sharp criticism about potential unintended consequences. Our binational research team, which has conducted studies among IDUs in Tijuana for 6 years, proposes a longitudinal, mixed methods study to address the impact of Mexican drug policy reform on the following outcomes among IDUs in Tijuana: 1) Changes in knowledge, attitudes and experiences about the new law and their relationship to drug using behaviors and treatment readiness;2) Temporal trends in drug use behaviors: i) frequency of injection, cessation and relapse;ii) possession and use of specific drugs and combinations;iii) involvement in gangs and drug economy;3) Health risks and protective behaviors: i) injecting in shooting galleries and public spaces, ii) receptive needle sharing, iii) NEP and pharmacy attendance, iv) prevalence and incidence of overdose, HIV infection and death;4) Experiences with drug treatment: i) proportion of drug users over time choosing treatment over incarceration;ii) incidence and experiences with voluntary and court-mandated drug treatment;5) Law enforcement practices and interactions with IDUs: i) rates of arrest and incarceration;ii) perceived reasons vs. recorded reasons for arrest and incarceration;ii) experiences of cohort participants with police, including corruption and abuse. We will recruit a cohort of 750 HIV-negative IDUs through respondent driven sampling who will undergo semi- annual quantitative interviews and HIV tests. At each visit, a sub-sample who receive citations for drug possession-- especially those entering drug treatment involuntarily -- will be selected to undergo qualitative in- depth interviews to provide context on their knowledge of the law (Aim 1), experiences with drug treatment (Aim 4) and police (Aim 5). Administrative records from drug treatment programs, the police department and jails/prisons will be obtained to serve as independent outcome measures and assess city-level trends. Apart from Mexico, other Latin American countries and elsewhere are adopting more relaxed drug policy reforms. Given Mexico's important role in production and trafficking of illicit drugs, and Tijuana's location as a major corridor through which illicit drugs enter the U.S., this study represents an unprecedented natural experiment, allowing us to evaluate impacts of relaxed drug policy reforms on drug use, treatment, and HIV risk behaviors.

Public Health Relevance

We propose a longitudinal, mixed methods study to address the impact of Mexican drug policy reform on the following outcomes among IDUs in Tijuana over time: 1) Changes in knowledge, attitudes and experiences about the enactment of Mexican drug policy reform and their relation to drug using behaviors and treatment readiness;2) Temporal trends in drug use behaviors;3) Health risks and protective behaviors;4) Experiences with drug treatment: i) proportion of drug users over time choosing treatment over incarceration;ii) incidence and experiences with voluntary and involuntary drug treatment and 5) Law enforcement practices and interactions with IDUs. To address these aims, we will recruit a cohort of 750 IDUs in Tijuana who will undergo semi-annual quantitative interviews and testing for HIV antibodies. At each visit, a sub- sample who report receiving a 1st, 2nd or 3rd strike for drug possession will undergo qualitative in- depth interviews to address the context of their knowledge of the law (Aim 1), changes in drug use and health risks (Aims 2&3) experiences with drug treatment (Aim 4) and police (Aim 5).

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Type
Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award (R37)
Project #
3R37DA019829-08S1
Application #
8668537
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-AARR-D (02))
Program Officer
Hartsock, Peter
Project Start
2005-04-01
Project End
2014-06-30
Budget Start
2013-07-01
Budget End
2014-06-30
Support Year
8
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$43,400
Indirect Cost
$15,400
Name
University of California San Diego
Department
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
804355790
City
La Jolla
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92093
Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, Jose Luis; Ojeda, Adriana Vargas et al. (2015) The role of visual markers in police victimization among structurally vulnerable persons in Tijuana, Mexico. Int J Drug Policy 26:501-8
Strathdee, Steffanie A; Beletsky, Leo; Kerr, Thomas (2015) HIV, drugs and the legal environment. Int J Drug Policy 26 Suppl 1:S27-32
Azim, Tasnim; Bontell, Irene; Strathdee, Steffanie A (2015) Women, drugs and HIV. Int J Drug Policy 26 Suppl 1:S16-21
Schilder, Arn J; Anema, Aranka; Pai, Jay et al. (2014) Association between childhood physical abuse, unprotected receptive anal intercourse and HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada. PLoS One 9:e100501
Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Robertson, Angela M et al. (2014) Perceived risk of HIV infection among deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico. Glob Public Health 9:436-54
Robertson, Angela M; Garfein, Richard S; Wagner, Karla D et al. (2014) Evaluating the impact of Mexico's drug policy reforms on people who inject drugs in Tijuana, B.C., Mexico, and San Diego, CA, United States: a binational mixed methods research agenda. Harm Reduct J 11:4
Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Ojeda, Victoria D (2014) A critical review of social and structural conditions that influence HIV risk among Mexican deportees. Microbes Infect 16:379-90
Rudolph, Abby E; Gaines, Tommi L; Lozada, Remedios et al. (2014) Evaluating outcome-correlated recruitment and geographic recruitment bias in a respondent-driven sample of people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico. AIDS Behav 18:2325-37
Beletsky, Leo; Heller, Daliah; Jenness, Samuel M et al. (2014) Syringe access, syringe sharing, and police encounters among people who inject drugs in New York City: a community-level perspective. Int J Drug Policy 25:105-11
Guerrero, Erick G; Villatoro, Jorge Ameth; Kong, Yinfei et al. (2014) Barriers to accessing substance abuse treatment in Mexico: national comparative analysis by migration status. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 9:30

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