PROVIDED. This project will investigate the psychobiological factors that influence the preference for and consumption of carbohydrate-rich and fat-rich foods. There has been considerable concern that diets high in simple carbohydrates, and even more so high in fat,promote human disease and obesity. Laboratory research has documented that high-sugar and high-fat foods promote overeating, overweight, and obesity in animals. However, the psychobiological mechanisms responsible for these effects remain incompletelyunderstood. Of particular importance are the determinants of food choice: why do animals (includinghumans) select sugar- and fat-rich foods when many food options are available? The orosensory properties (flavor) of high-sugar and high-fat foods are clearly attractive to animals. It is now known that the postingestive actions of these nutrients significantly enhance carbohydrate and fat appetites. Until recently, postingestive nutrientactions were considered to beexclusively inhibitory (satiating) in nature, but recent findings demonstrate that nutrients have positive(reinforcing) postingestive consequences that influence food choice and consumption by conditioning flavor preferences and acceptance.
The specific aims of this project are to (1) Investigate the relationshipbetween nutrientreinforcementand satiety in learned food preferences. (2) Determine the effects of deprivation state on conditioned flavor preference and acceptance. (3) Reveal the effects of nutrient reinforcementon consummatory, appetitive and instrumental behaviors. (4) Evaluate the unconditionedstimuli in nutrient-conditioned flavor preferences. (5) Investigate the central neural mediation of flavor-nutrient preference conditioning. This research involves the fields of psychobiology, neuroscience, nutrition,and gastrointestinal physiology. It will advance our basic knowledge of the psychobiology of carbohydrate and fat appetite and the development of food preferences. The findings may provide practical benefits for current attempts to alter dietary fat and carbohydrate intake and control adiposity in humans.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award (R37)
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Special Emphasis Panel (NSS)
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Yanovski, Susan Z
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Brooklyn College
Schools of Arts and Sciences
New York
United States
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Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen (2017) Flavor preferences conditioned by nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners in mice. Physiol Behav 173:188-199
Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Lolier, Melanie et al. (2016) BALB/c and SWR inbred mice differ in post-oral fructose appetition as revealed by sugar versus non-nutritive sweetener tests. Physiol Behav 153:64-9
Sclafani, Anthony; Adamantidis, Antoine; Ackroff, Karen (2016) MCH receptor deletion does not impair glucose-conditioned flavor preferences in mice. Physiol Behav 163:239-244
Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony (2016) Maltodextrin and sucrose preferences in sweet-sensitive (C57BL/6J) and subsensitive (129P3/J) mice revisited. Physiol Behav 165:286-90
Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen (2016) Operant licking for intragastric sugar infusions: Differential reinforcing actions of glucose, sucrose and fructose in mice. Physiol Behav 153:115-24
Sclafani, Anthony; Koepsell, Hermann; Ackroff, Karen (2016) SGLT1 sugar transporter/sensor is required for post-oral glucose appetition. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 310:R631-9
Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen (2015) Postoral glucose sensing, not caloric content, determines sugar reward in C57BL/6J mice. Chem Senses 40:245-58
Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen (2015) Flavor preference conditioning by different sugars in sweet ageusic Trpm5 knockout mice. Physiol Behav 140:156-63
Sclafani, Anthony; Touzani, Khalid; Ackroff, Karen (2015) Intragastric fat self-administration is impaired in GPR40/120 double knockout mice. Physiol Behav 147:141-8
Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony (2015) Flavor change and food deprivation are not critical for post-oral glucose appetition in mice. Physiol Behav 140:23-31

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