The overall goal of this research is to advance the understanding of flexibility in motor skill acquisition - how infants, children, and adults learn to select appropriate movements and modify them as necessary in accordance with the current constraints on action. Flexibility is imperative for adaptive motor decisions because the constraints on action (e.g., environment, bodies/skills, and penalties for error) are continually changing. Empirical work indicates that everyday experience with balance and locomotion provides infants the wherewithal to flexibly adapt motor decisions to novel changes in their bodies, skills, and environment. Learning, however, is specific to each perception-action system in postural development (sitting, crawling, and walking).
Specific Aim #1 is to test the flexibility and specificity of infants'motor decisions. The proposed experiments use an age-matched design to test flexibility within experienced perception-action systems under conditions of altered body dimensions/skills and penalties for error and to test specificity between experienced vs. newly acquired perception-action systems.
Specific Aim #2 is to describe the time course of flexibility. The proposed studies use a microgenetic design to test experience-related changes in infants'ability to cope with novel constraints on action and a cross-sectional design to test age-related changes in flexibility from infancy to old age.
Specific Aim #3 is to assess flexibility in """"""""specialized"""""""" perception-action systems - skills acquired after infancy by only a subset of children due to specific opportunities and demands. Proposed studies use a """"""""monkey bar"""""""" paradigm to test children's motor decisions under conditions of altered body constraints and penalties for error. Across all experiments, a psychophysical method will be used to quantify the correspondence between motor decisions and actual possibilities for action. As the penalties for errors in the proposed studies are falling or entrapment, findings will provide insight into these two leading causes of accidental injury. Falling from monkey bars is the leading cause of playground injury in middle childhood. In addition, the proposed methods, conceptual framework, and findings can provide the basis for assessing flexibility in children with motor impairments and for tracking improvements in flexibility with therapy.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award (R37)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-BBBP-E (90))
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Freund, Lisa S
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New York University
Other Domestic Higher Education
New York
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Franchak, John M; Kretch, Kari S; Adolph, Karen E (2017) See and be seen: Infant-caregiver social looking during locomotor free play. Dev Sci :
Rachwani, Jaya; Soska, Kasey C; Adolph, Karen E (2017) Behavioral flexibility in learning to sit. Dev Psychobiol 59:937-948
Adolph, Karen E; Franchak, John M (2017) The development of motor behavior. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 8:
Cole, Whitney G; Robinson, Scott R; Adolph, Karen E (2016) Bouts of steps: The organization of infant exploration. Dev Psychobiol 58:341-54
Comalli, David M; Keen, Rachel; Abraham, Evelyn S et al. (2016) The development of tool use: Planning for end-state comfort. Dev Psychol 52:1878-1892
Franchak, John M; Heeger, David J; Hasson, Uri et al. (2016) Free Viewing Gaze Behavior in Infants and Adults. Infancy 21:262-287
Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E (2016) Decisions at the Brink: Locomotor Experience Affects Infants' Use of Social Information on an Adjustable Drop-off. Front Psychol 7:797
Nayar, Kritika; Franchak, John; Adolph, Karen et al. (2015) From local to global processing: the development of illusory contour perception. J Exp Child Psychol 131:38-55
Kretch, Kari S; Adolph, Karen E (2015) Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults. Dev Sci 18:736-50
Karasik, Lana B; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Adolph, Karen E et al. (2015) Places and postures: A cross-cultural comparison of sitting in 5-month-olds. J Cross Cult Psychol 46:1023-1038

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