Synapses are intercellular junctions that mediate neuronal communication, and likely involve many cell-adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynaptic neurons to each other. Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that are essential for the formation of functional synapses, and for the specification of the properties of synapses. Neurexins are highly polymorphic due to extensive alternative splicing, interact with multiple postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules, and are associated with autism-spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, which highlights their importance for synaptic circuits. However, how exactly neurexins function in synapses, and how this function is impaired in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, remains unclear. In the present application, we propose four specific aims to examine how neurexins function in synapses.
These aims utilize a combination of mouse genetics, electrophysiology, biophysics, and protein chemistry to determine the general functions of different neurexin isoforms, to understand the biological significance of their alternative splicing, to characterize how neurexins interact with multifarious ligands in a tightly regulated manner, and to elucidate the specific significance of their interactions with various ligands. These experiments will provide a comprehensive exploration of neurexin function and the mechanisms involved in this function, and clarify how neurexins act in specifying synapse properties. The results of these studies will not only provide insight into synaptic function in general, but also advance our understanding of synaptic dysfunction in cognitive disorders such as autism and schizophrenia.

Public Health Relevance

Synapses mediate the communication between nerve cells in brain, and are impaired in cognitive diseases such as autism or schizophrenia. Synapses are formed by cell-adhesion molecules such as neurexins, which in recent studies have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. In the present project, we will continue our long-term investigation of how neurexins function at synapses, and how impairments of their function leads to cognitive diseases. Results from this project will not only provide insight into how neurons communicate, but also promote our understanding of how such communication becomes dysfunctional in autism and schizophrenia.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Type
Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award (R37)
Project #
5R37MH052804-19
Application #
8240537
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-MDCN-P (02))
Program Officer
Asanuma, Chiiko
Project Start
1994-09-30
Project End
2015-01-31
Budget Start
2012-02-01
Budget End
2013-01-31
Support Year
19
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$473,710
Indirect Cost
$163,616
Name
Stanford University
Department
Neurosciences
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
009214214
City
Stanford
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
94305
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Um, Ji Won; Pramanik, Gopal; Ko, Ji Seung et al. (2014) Calsyntenins function as synaptogenic adhesion molecules in concert with neurexins. Cell Rep 6:1096-109
Boucard, Antony A; Maxeiner, Stephan; Sudhof, Thomas C (2014) Latrophilins function as heterophilic cell-adhesion molecules by binding to teneurins: regulation by alternative splicing. J Biol Chem 289:387-402
Gokce, Ozgun; Sudhof, Thomas C (2013) Membrane-tethered monomeric neurexin LNS-domain triggers synapse formation. J Neurosci 33:14617-28
Arac, Demet; Boucard, Antony A; Bolliger, Marc F et al. (2012) A novel evolutionarily conserved domain of cell-adhesion GPCRs mediates autoproteolysis. EMBO J 31:1364-78
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Boucard, Antony A; Ko, Jaewon; Sudhof, Thomas C (2012) High affinity neurexin binding to cell adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor CIRL1/latrophilin-1 produces an intercellular adhesion complex. J Biol Chem 287:9399-413
Bolliger, Marc F; Martinelli, David C; Sudhof, Thomas C (2011) The cell-adhesion G protein-coupled receptor BAI3 is a high-affinity receptor for C1q-like proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:2534-9
Etherton, Mark R; Tabuchi, Katsuhiko; Sharma, Manu et al. (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30:2908-19
Etherton, Mark; Foldy, Csaba; Sharma, Manu et al. (2011) Autism-linked neuroligin-3 R451C mutation differentially alters hippocampal and cortical synaptic function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:13764-9

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