The overall objective of this project is to unravel molecular mechanisms by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate expression of the signal transduction protein Ga{i2}. ROS are implicated in many disease states such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular problems, hypertension, aging, and inflammation. To extend preliminary studies showing that Ga{i2} is up-regulated by ROS through the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway, a pathway that underlies cells'response to oxidative stress, two specific aims are proposed.
In specific aim 1, the objectives are to (a) test the hypothesis that protein-protein interaction between C/EBP1 and one or more of the other transcription factors (Sp1, Nrf2, and NF-kB) that bind at the ROS-responsive region of the Ga{i2} gene promoter constitute the mechanistic basis for the C/EBP1-induced suppression of Ga{i2} gene expression, and (b) explore the idea that Ga{i2} possesses redox-sensing capability. Protein-protein interaction will be monitored by co- immunoprecipitation, co-occupancy on, and/or recruitment (of the transcription factors) to the promoter.
In specific aim 2, the objective is to assess mechanism(s) of the nuclear import of Nrf2, the key transcription factor in the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway. Its nuclear translocation will be monitored by fluorescence imaging of transfected green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged Nrf2, and by site-directed mutagenesis to assess the functionality of novel nuclear localization sequences in the protein. Affinity of such sequences to importin alphas that mediate this translocation will be measured by co-immunoprecipitation methods, and kinetics of nuclear import will be measured by fluorescence loss in photo bleaching (FLIP) assays. The work will be done primarily with K562 cells, a hematopoietic cell line, and in some experiments with HepG2 cells which are of liver origin. To elevate ROS levels, the cells will be exposed to the electrophile tert-butylhydroquinone or to H{2}O{2}.

Public Health Relevance

. Oxygen radicals, also known as reactive oxygen species (ROS), are products of normal cell metabolism but they are toxic at high levels. They can be induced by drugs, environmental oxidants, and stress-inducing chemicals. ROS and the signal transduction proteins called G proteins are of enormous significance in public health because abnormalities in their function impact many diseases such as diabetes, heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. The outcome of the proposed research will contribute to further understanding of these pathologies.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Enhancement Award (SC1)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZGM1-MBRS-0 (GC))
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Wali, Anil
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Meharry Medical College
Other Basic Sciences
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Xu, Jinxian; Kawai, Yumiko; Arinze, Ifeanyi J (2013) Dual role of C/EBP? as an activator and repressor of G?i2 gene transcription. Genes Cells 18:1082-94
Malloy, Melanie Theodore; McIntosh, Deneshia J; Walters, Treniqka S et al. (2013) Trafficking of the transcription factor Nrf2 to promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear bodies: implications for degradation of NRF2 in the nucleus. J Biol Chem 288:14569-83
Kawai, Yumiko; Garduño, Lakisha; Theodore, Melanie et al. (2011) Acetylation-deacetylation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) regulates its transcriptional activity and nucleocytoplasmic localization. J Biol Chem 286:7629-40