Patients with type 2 diabetes have a greater risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) and its complications. The purpose of this research is to investigate two understudied minority populations, African American (AA) and Haitian, with and without type 2 diabetes and risk factors of developing CHD. The National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion age-adjusted data shows that minority populations are disproportionately affected by diabetes, with black males and females having the highest percent of diabetes in 2004. Most published studies have either studied AAs alone or failed to acknowledge ethnic and cultural differences in diabetes prevalence/ incidence, morbidity and mortality among ethnic groups of varying races and geographic origin by lumping them into a single group. Data for blacks cannot be generalized to other ethnicities due to the differences in their heritage, cultural background, and food habits that influence health and disease. In order to develop effective treatment and prevention methodologies, it is important to have baseline data regarding diabetes status and associated risks for CVD. We hypothesize that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks will be greater for AAs and Haitians with type 2 diabetes than non-diabetics based on biochemical and dietary indices. We expect AA and Haitian women with type 2 diabetes to have a greater number of CVD risk factors than AA and Haitian men based on greater mortality reported among diabetic women than men. The proposed study is an epidemiological study with subject groupings as follows: diabetic and non-diabetic AAs and Haitians with 240 subjects in each group (total N = 480). Further groupings will be based on gender (N = 60 per gender per ethnic group). Diabetic subjects will be matched for age and gender by randomly selecting the non-diabetic subjects from a community-based population group. Results of the biochemical, genetic and dietary indicators of CVD will be assessed to develop risk profiles in relation to diabetes status, gender and age. Statistical analysis will be performed to determine significant differences (t-test) between groups and the significant predictors of CVD in this population using multiple and logistical regression analysis. Results of this study will address at least two of the objectives of the Healthy People 2010 with regard to diabetes among minorities.
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