The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multi-center, multi-ethnic longitudinal study designed to characterize the physiological and psychosocial changes that occur during the menopausal transition and to observe their effects on subsequent health and risk factors for age-related diseases. The goals of the original RFA were to answer the following questions: How do hormones change with the menopausal transition? What factors affect the timing of the transition? What are the symptoms that accompany menopause and who is at risk? How do cardiovascular risk factors change with the transition and is there ethnic variation? What are the rates of bone loss with the transition? When does bone loss begin and what are the risk factors? What are the health consequences of menopause and who is at risk? SWAN is compiling the most comprehensive characterization to date of the health and the physiologic and psychosocial changes of women from pre- to postmenopause in community based samples. SWAN is now poised to study the effects of these menopause-related changes on subsequent healthy aging and on age-related diseases in the post-reproductive period. SWAN I was first funded in September 1994 by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), and the Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH) in response to RFA AG-94-002, Menopause and Health in Aging Women. The first competing continuation of SWAN (SWAN II) was funded in 1999 and the second (SWAN III) in 2004. SWAN I, II and III have been supported by a cooperative agreement mechanism, with 9 funded components: 7 clinical centers, a central reproductive hormone laboratory (CLASS), and a coordinating center. A second central laboratory (MRL) was originally funded as a subcontract to the Coordinating Center (CC). In addition, a Core Repository of serum, plasma, and urine specimens and a DNA Repository were established in June 2000 under separate funding (U01 AG 17719, PI: Dr. MaryFran Sowers). For non-study-related reasons, site operations at New Jersey Medical School stopped in April 2004. The basis of this action was allegations made by two study employees who resigned abruptly. The SWAN PI and study coordinator were subsequently exonerated from these allegations. Please see Appendix 12 for a more complete report. The grant was transferred to the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in 2005. Since that time, the New Jersey PI and project director have worked tirelessly to overcome the obstacles to re-implement the study. As of June 1, 2008, a total of 155 women have successfully completed their clinic visit and five more visits are scheduled. We project that by the end of SWAN III, data will be available for 250 women. This has been very encouraging and thus Nanette Santoro, PI of the New Jersey SWAN site has been approved by the NIA to prepare a U01 application to cover further contacts for the Hispanic women. Please note that the SWAN IVproject applications pertain to the remaining six sites only. Information relative to the New Jersey site is covered in the separate application submitted by Dr. Nanette Santoro. From over 16,000 women aged 40-55 years who were screened during 1995-1997, 3302 women aged 42-52 years were enrolled in SWAN's longitudinal cohort (approximately 450 at each of 7 clinical centers). They completed their baseline clinic visit during 1996-1997. Of the 3302 women enrolled, 1550 were Caucasian, 935 African American, 286 Hispanic, 250 Chinese, and 281 Japanese. A subset of 880 menstruating women was enrolled in the Daily Hormone Study (DHS) started in 1997, which is designed to examine cyclical daily hormone and symptom patterns during the menopausal transition.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Research Project--Cooperative Agreements (U01)
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Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAG1-ZIJ-8 (J3))
Program Officer
Rossi, Winifred K
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University of Pittsburgh
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Zheng, Huiyong; Harlow, Siobán D; Kravitz, Howard M et al. (2015) Actigraphy-defined measures of sleep and movement across the menstrual cycle in midlife menstruating women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study. Menopause 22:66-74
Randolph Jr, John F; Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E et al. (2015) Masturbation frequency and sexual function domains are associated with serum reproductive hormone levels across the menopausal transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100:258-66
Paramsothy, Pangaja; Harlow, Siobán D; Elliott, Michael R et al. (2015) Influence of race/ethnicity, body mass index, and proximity of menopause on menstrual cycle patterns in the menopausal transition: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Menopause 22:159-65
Greendale, Gail A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Han, Weijuan et al. (2015) Dietary isoflavones and bone mineral density during midlife and the menopausal transition: cross-sectional and longitudinal results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Phytoestrogen Study. Menopause 22:279-88
Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A; Harlow, Sioban D; Jacobson, Jon et al. (2014) The relationship between longitudinal serum leptin measures and measures of magnetic resonance imaging-assessed knee joint damage in a population of mid-life women. Ann Rheum Dis 73:883-9
Gibson, Carolyn; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca (2014) Daily physical activity and hot flashes in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Flashes Study. Fertil Steril 101:1110-6
Garcia, Lorena; Qi, Lihong; Rasor, Marianne et al. (2014) The relationship of violence and traumatic stress to changes in weight and waist circumference: longitudinal analyses from the study of women's health across the nation. J Interpers Violence 29:1459-76
Fu, Polly; Matthews, Karen A; Thurston, Rebecca C (2014) How well do different measurement modalities estimate the number of vasomotor symptoms? Findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation FLASHES Study. Menopause 21:124-30
Polotsky, Alex J; Allshouse, Amanda A; Crawford, Sybil L et al. (2014) Hyperandrogenic oligomenorrhea and metabolic risks across menopausal transition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99:2120-7
Thurston, Rebecca C; Chang, Yuefang; Derby, Carol A et al. (2014) Abuse and subclinical cardiovascular disease among midlife women: the study of women's health across the nation. Stroke 45:2246-51

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