Primary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) is the most common urological abnormality in children, with a prevalence of about one percent, which increases to 30%- 40% when diagnosed after febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). VUR predisposes to UTI and is associated with renal scarring, which may cause hypertension, proteinuria, and progressive renal damage. The current treatment of VUR is long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis with surgical intervention in selected cases. However, there has been no well-designed prospective study to validate that this management is beneficial to the patient. In December 2005, NIH/NIDDK initiated the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) study, which is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial designed to determine whether daily antimicrobial prophylaxis is superior to placebo in preventing recurrent UTI and renal scarring in children with grade l-IV VUR. The study subjects are also evaluated for bacterial resistance, constipation, voiding dysfunction, changes in renal function, quality of life, medication compliance, and the utilization of health resources. Blood and urine repository samples are collected for genetic and other ancillary studies. To test the study hypotheses, a total of 600 children will be randomly assigned to daily antimicrobial prophylaxis (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) or placebo (300 in each group) and followed for a 2-year period. The recruitment for the study started in May 2007 and as of November 6, 2009, 373 (62%) patients have been randomized, which includes 68 (57%) of the 120 patients to be recruited from Detroit Core Clinical Site. Based on the current recruitment projections, the 600th participant will be randomized by December 2010, who will need to be followed until December 2012. However, the current funding for the RIVUR study expires in May 2010. The main objective of this application is to obtain funding to ensure continued patient enrollment, evaluation, follow-up, and data collection for a successful completion of this very important and uniquely designed study, which has already randomized the largest number of best defined cohort of young children ever collected for a double-blind, placebo controlled, study on VUR.
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