Much of the work on inhalation anthrax has exclusively focused on the exotoxins. Our recent studies indicate that the peptidoglycan component of the B. anthracis cell wall induces the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The production of the cytokines and chemokines is exclusively from peripheral blood monocytes;lymphocytes and neutrophils do not respond. We have preliminary and on-going structural work to chemically characterize B. anthracis peptidoglycan. We have novel tools to identify the currently unknown extracellular receptor for Gram-positive peptidoglycan and to understand the signaling events induced by the receptor and causing the changes in monocyte biology. Additionally, we have new data indicating that peptidoglycan induces monocyte apoptosis in a subpopulation distinct from the monocytes producing inflammatory cytokines. We present an experimental plan to identify the mechanism of peptidoglycan-triggered apoptosis. The monocyte apoptosis might contribute to the high mortality of B. anthracis and possibly of other Gram-positive pathogens by eliminating an important component of the innate immune system. We will test this possibility by challenging rodents and non-human primates with B. anthracis peptidoglycan and measuring monocyte levels.
Inhalation Bacillus anthracis infection remains a significant bioterrorist health threat because (a) the disease is associated with a high percentage of fatalities, (b) the spores are long-lived and can be manufactured with inexpensive equipment, (c) the vaccine is cumbersome, associated with adverse effects and not provided to the general public. Furthermore, causing public terror - the real goal of the terrorist - can be achieved with a relatively few highly-publicized public deaths caused by an exotic disease like anthrax.
|Liu, Ke; Kurien, Biji T; Zimmerman, Sarah L et al. (2016) X Chromosome Dose and Sex Bias in Autoimmune Diseases: Increased Prevalence of 47,XXX in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and SjÃ¶gren's Syndrome. Arthritis Rheumatol 68:1290-300|
|Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Muns, Emily E et al. (2016) Unique Inflammatory Mediators and Specific IgE Levels Distinguish Local from Systemic Reactions after Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccination. Clin Vaccine Immunol 23:664-71|
|Hu, Zihua; Jiang, Kaiyu; Frank, Mark Barton et al. (2016) Complexity and Specificity of the Neutrophil Transcriptomes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Sci Rep 6:27453|
|Devera, T Scott; Lang, Gillian A; Lanis, Jordi M et al. (2016) Memory B Cells Encode Neutralizing Antibody Specific for Toxin B from the Clostridium difficile Strains VPI 10463 and NAP1/BI/027 but with Superior Neutralization of VPI 10463 Toxin B. Infect Immun 84:194-204|
|McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany et al. (2016) Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove. Elife 5:|
|Wu, Wenxin; Zhang, Wei; Booth, J Leland et al. (2016) Human primary airway epithelial cells isolated from active smokers have epigenetically impaired antiviral responses. Respir Res 17:111|
|Booth, J Leland; Duggan, Elizabeth S; Patel, Vineet I et al. (2016) Bacillus anthracis spore movement does not require a carrier cell and is not affected by lethal toxin in human lung models. Microbes Infect 18:615-626|
|Smith, Kenneth; Shah, Hemangi; Muther, Jennifer J et al. (2016) Antigen nature and complexity influence human antibody light chain usage and specificity. Vaccine 34:2813-20|
|Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick (2016) Identification and characterization of human dendritic cell subsets in the steady state: a review of our current knowledge. J Investig Med 64:833-47|
|Kovats, S; Turner, S; Simmons, A et al. (2016) West Nile virus-infected human dendritic cells fail to fully activate invariant natural killer T cells. Clin Exp Immunol 186:214-226|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 105 publications