Malaria transmission can change rapidly and vary dramatically over small spatial scales. The result is that current maps of malaria epidemiology do not reflect recent changes and have poor predictive capacity at the level of individual communities. Current measures of community exposure to P. falciparum - principally the entomological inoculation rate and parasite rate - have several limitations. Assays of antimalarial antibodies, which can be performed using dried blood spots collected in the field, have recently been shown to provide robust estimates of a community's average exposure to parasites over the prior years. Such assays offer the promise of obtaining frequent, high coverage data on exposure at low cost. However, these assays need to be further refined to reflect dynamic changes in exposure that may occur with implementation of control efforts and to reflect heterogeneity in exposure over small spatial scales. In addition, changes in a population's exposure and therefore immune protection alter the relationship between exposure and disease in a complicated fashion. Assays designed to assess immunologic protection directly would help predict the impact of changing transmission on the burden of disease. In response to the need for better tools to measure exposure and the relationship between exposure and disease, the specific aims of research project 3 are: 1) to characterize the individual-level relationships between P. falciparum exposure, the immune response, and protection from infection and disease in Ugandan cohorts, 2) to develop and validate mmunologic assays for estimating the population-level dynamics of exposure to P. falciparum in surveillance studies performed throughout Uganda, and 3) to develop and validate immunologic assays for estimating the population-level dynamics of disease in response to changing P. falciparum exposure in surveillance studies performed throughout Uganda. Using data and specimens from existing cohorts, laboratory and statistical methods will be optimized to provide immunologic assessments of prior exposure and protection from infection and disease. Immunologic assays will then be translated to the population level and prospectively validated using surveillance data and filter paper blood samples collected at multiples sites in Uganda.
Obtaining standard metrics for assessing malaria exposure and the relationship between exposure and disease requires surveillance that is expensive and time consuming, and therefore only performed sporadically. Immunologic assays using blood collected on dried blood spots provide a potentially costeffective and robust method for improving malaria surveillance.
|Katrak, Shereen; Nayebare, Patience; Rek, John et al. (2018) Clinical consequences of submicroscopic malaria parasitaemia in Uganda. Malar J 17:67|
|Meerstein-Kessel, Lisette; Andolina, Chiara; Carrio, Elvira et al. (2018) A multiplex assay for the sensitive detection and quantification of male and female Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. Malar J 17:441|
|Glennon, Elizabeth K K; Megawati, Dewi; Torrevillas, Brandi K et al. (2018) Elevated plasma abscisic acid is associated with asymptomatic falciparum malaria and with IgG-/caspase-1-dependent immunity in Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice. Sci Rep 8:8896|
|James, W H M; Tejedor-Garavito, N; Hanspal, S E et al. (2018) Gridded birth and pregnancy datasets for Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Sci Data 5:180090|
|Utazi, C Edson; Sahu, Sujit K; Atkinson, Peter M et al. (2018) Geographic coverage of demographic surveillance systems for characterising the drivers of childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. BMJ Glob Health 3:e000611|
|Isaacs, Alison T; Mawejje, Henry D; Tomlinson, Sean et al. (2018) Genome-wide transcriptional analyses in Anopheles mosquitoes reveal an unexpected association between salivary gland gene expression and insecticide resistance. BMC Genomics 19:225|
|Wesolowski, Amy; Winter, Amy; Tatem, Andrew J et al. (2018) Measles outbreak risk in Pakistan: exploring the potential of combining vaccination coverage and incidence data with novel data-streams to strengthen control. Epidemiol Infect 146:1575-1583|
|Weetman, David; Wilding, Craig S; Neafsey, Daniel E et al. (2018) Candidate-gene based GWAS identifies reproducible DNA markers for metabolic pyrethroid resistance from standing genetic variation in East African Anopheles gambiae. Sci Rep 8:2920|
|Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Jagannathan, Prasanna et al. (2018) Quantification of anti-parasite and anti-disease immunity to malaria as a function of age and exposure. Elife 7:|
|Nankabirwa, Joaniter I; Briggs, Jessica; Rek, John et al. (2018) Persistent parasitemia despite dramatic reduction in malaria incidence after 3 rounds of indoor residual spraying in Tororo, Uganda. J Infect Dis :|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 172 publications