The development of an HIV-1 vaccine is a critical global health priority. Yet, despite over 30 years of research, only three HIV-1 vaccine concepts have completed clinical efficacy testing in humans. The RV144 study showed that an ALVAC prime, gpl20 protein boost regimen afforded 31% protection against acquisition of HIV-1 infection in a community-based study in Thailand, suggesting that the development of an HIV-1 vaccine is possible. However, additional novel vaccine concepts need to be tested in clinical trials, including clinical efficacy trials. In this IPCAVD program, we propose to evaluate our Ad26/MVA and Ad26/Protein vaccine candidates in SIV challenge studies in rhesus monkeys and in phase 1 clinical trials in humans. Specifically, we hypothesize that a heterologous prime-boost regimen combining novel serotype adenovirus vectors with poxvirus vectors and/or Env gp140 trimers will induce potent and protective antitbody and T lymphocyte responses. The goal of these studies is to define the optimal vaccine candidate for potential phase 2 clinical development. To accomplish this goal, we propose the following Projects and Cores: Project 1: Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Ad/MVA and Ad/Protein l-IIV-1 Vaccines Project 2: Clinical Evaluation of Novel Ad/MVA and Ad/Protein HIV-1 Vaccines Project 3: Manufacturing and Regulatory Support of Ad/MVA and Ad/Protein HIV-1 Vaccines Core A: Administrative Core;Core B: Immune Monitoring Core. Project 1: Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Ad/MVA and Ad/Protein HIV-1 Vaccines Project 1 Leader (PL): Dan H. Barouch DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Adenovirus vectors have proven highly potent for inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses. The failure of an Ad5-Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine in the Step study has led to the development of novel serotype Ad vectors, which are biologically very different and arguably substantially superior to Ad5 in terms of seroepidemiology, cellular receptor usage, in vivo tropism, innate immune responses, transcriptional profiles, adaptive immune phenotypes, and protective efficacy against SIV in rhesus monkeys. Moreover, the inclusion of Env may be critical for an HIV-1 vaccine. Based on our preclinical and clinical preliminary data, we have prioritized Ad26/MVA and Ad26/Protein regimens for further development. In Project 1, we will conduct the key preclinical studies to inform the clinical development program described in Project 2. These studies will help define the lead vaccine candidate and will help determine the mechanism of protection afforded by our optimal vaccine regimen. Specifically, we will test the hypothesis that adding a gp140 trimer protein boost will augment the partial protection afforded by our optimal vaccine vectors against acquisition of highly stringent, heterologous SIV challenges. We will also test the hypothesis that vaccine-elicited Env-specific antibodies are critical for this protection. To evaluate these hypotheses, we propose the following two Specific Aims: 1. To compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Ad26/Ad26 and Ad26/MVA vector regimens with and without a gp140 trimer protein boost against repetitive, heterologous, neutralization-resistant, intrarectal SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys;and 2. To define the mechanism of blocking acquisition of stringent SIV challenges by conducting antigen formulation and adoptive transfer studies in rhesus monkeys.

Public Health Relevance

The development of a safe and effective HIV-1 vaccine would address an urgent global public health problem. We propose integrated preclinical and clinical studies to evaluate a series of novel HIV-1 vaccine regimens and to define an optimal HIV-1 vaccine candidate for potential further clinical development

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Program--Cooperative Agreements (U19)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-EC-A (M2))
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Pensiero, Michael N
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Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
United States
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