In the DNA prime, MVA boost model to be used in Project One of this application, the only immune correlate of protection against mucosal challenge identified thus far is the GM-CSF mediated avidity of vaccine-elicited antibody binding to the envelope ofthe challenge virus. The mechanism for protection is unknown but suggests an important role for the humoral immune response. The goals of the Virology and Antibody Assay Core are therefore to investigate (i) a mechanism for GM-CSF-based antibody protection (Project One), (ii) novel strategies for promoting humoral immunity within the gut mucosa (Project Two), and (iii) vaccine and challenge induced antibody specificities (NHP Monoclonal Antibody Core). The Virology Core is central to these studies and will assess whether neutralizing and Fc-mediated antibody activities correlate with vaccine-induced protection. We will focus on antibodies within mucosal secretions and plasma against viral proteins Env and Gag. The neutralizing antibody component mediates antiviral activity by binding to the virion associated form of Env and preventing infection of a target cell. While neutralizing antibodies are likely to be a critical component of a vaccine, to date no one has elicited Nabs that can mediate neutralization of genetically diverse viruses, a feature that is critical for protection of HlV-1 infected humans. Other nonneutralizing antibody activities have been associated with protection against acquisition and disease progression. These involve recognition of the Env expressed on the surface of an infected cell, leading to lysis of that cell (ADCC) in addition to augmenting other non-lytic mechanisms that may contribute to viral suppression (ADCVI). Finally, transmission of HIV-1 and SIV across the genital mucosa is associated with a genetic bottleneck, and we will therefore characterize the variants that establish infection in the vaccinated and control monkeys to determine whether vaccine-induced antibodies imposed selective pressure on Env. Specifically, the Virology Core will determine whether peripheral and mucosal IgG and IgA-mediated antibody activities correlate with immune protection against intravaginal challenge following vaccination and investigate whether a sieve effect is evident.

Public Health Relevance

A successful vaccine against HlV-1 will likely need to elicit a B cell response that produces neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibodies with activity against genetically diverse viruses. However, many questions must be answered to achieve this, including what kind of Env immunogen and delivery system is required to optimally elicit these types of antibodies with vaccination, are these antibodies required at mucosal surfaces, and how do they limit acquisition or contribute to viral control? It is therefore important to fully characterize the B cell response and antibodies that are elicited in the mucosa and the periphery during pre-clinical vaccine studies and determine how they contribute to protection against intravaginal challenge. Ultimately, it may be that multiple antibody-mediated activities present in several compartments are needed to achieve the desired protection, and we will investigate that directly here.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Research Program--Cooperative Agreements (U19)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Emory University
United States
Zip Code
Yang, Rendong; Bai, Yun; Qin, Zhaohui et al. (2014) EgoNet: identification of human disease ego-network modules. BMC Genomics 15:314
Derdeyn, Cynthia A; Moore, Penny L; Morris, Lynn (2014) Development of broadly neutralizing antibodies from autologous neutralizing antibody responses in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 9:210-6
Basu, Debby; Xiao, Peng; Ende, Zachary et al. (2014) Low antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity responses in Zambians prior to HIV-1 intrasubtype C superinfection. Virology 462-463:295-8
Magri, Giuliana; Miyajima, Michio; Bascones, Sabrina et al. (2014) Innate lymphoid cells integrate stromal and immunological signals to enhance antibody production by splenic marginal zone B cells. Nat Immunol 15:354-64
Yu, Tianwei; Jones, Dean P (2014) Improving peak detection in high-resolution LC/MS metabolomics data using preexisting knowledge and machine learning approach. Bioinformatics 30:2941-8
Li, Shuzhao; Rouphael, Nadine; Duraisingham, Sai et al. (2014) Molecular signatures of antibody responses derived from a systems biology study of five human vaccines. Nat Immunol 15:195-204
Romberg, Neil; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Saadoun, David et al. (2013) CVID-associated TACI mutations affect autoreactive B cell selection and activation. J Clin Invest 123:4283-93
Li, Shuzhao; Nakaya, Helder I; Kazmin, Dmitri A et al. (2013) Systems biological approaches to measure and understand vaccine immunity in humans. Semin Immunol 25:209-18
Pulendran, Bali; Oh, Jason Z; Nakaya, Helder I et al. (2013) Immunity to viruses: learning from successful human vaccines. Immunol Rev 255:243-55
Cerutti, Andrea; Cols, Montserrat; Puga, Irene (2013) Marginal zone B cells: virtues of innate-like antibody-producing lymphocytes. Nat Rev Immunol 13:118-32

Showing the most recent 10 out of 20 publications