Cancer metastasis via the blood stream can be modeled as a problem of fluid-solid interaction with multiple bodies (cells) of different masses, momentum, and physical qualities, in motion, within a complex flow field. The Four Dimensional Biopsy Center (4DB) utilizes physics-based measurements, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation to empirically characterize actual human cancer patient samples, with a goal of establishing a highly predictive model of human cancer cell behavior that will fundamentally alter our current understanding of the mechanisms of cancer metastasis. Extensive empirical measurements and analyses will be performed on a coherent set of samples from human cancer patients. Samples will consist of cells from primary tumors, locoregional metastases, and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) over time, all collected from the same patient. Additionally, a second cohort of samples will consist of CTCs from a large set of patients, stratified by tumor type and cancer stage. These sample sets will be analyzed in parallel by three independent Research Projects (RPs), producing orthogonal measures of identical phenomena, and delivering the variables and the correlations on the space and time dimension of epithelial cancers. The three Research Projects (RP) are: RP1 Cytophysics, which determines the physical and mechanical properties of cancer cells;RP2 Topology, which measures the topology, morphology, and travel group strategies of cancer cells;and RP3 Dynomics, which characterizes the genomics and transcriptomics of cancer cells. With assessment of depth, breadth, and fidelity thus assured, the measurements will be empowered by analyses of other parameters, including standard pathologic and clinical patient information. This extensive amalgamation of data, based primarily on physics investigations and mathematical theory, but informed by strategic patient sampling and clinical information, will be processed by advanced statistical analysis and mathematical modeling, to enable a highly predictive simulation of cancer spread that will revolutionize our understanding of metastasis. The 4DB Center will also serve to disseminate information, education, and training to a new generation of cancer physicists;a generation that will implement the power of physics to conquer the problems of cancer.
Deaths due to metastatic cancer continue to mount. Despite decades of effort, this set of diseases continues to evade our best therapeutic efforts and our best biologic investigations. The Four Dimensional Biopsy Center (4DB) takes cancer research in a new direction by pinning the metastasizing cancer cell directly in the spotlight of powerful physics and mathematics based measurements and modeling.
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