Research Resources Much of this research is based on three large epidemiologic observational cohorts the AGES- Reykjavik () and the HAAS (Honolulu Asia Aging Study, and The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). CARDIA began in 1985-6 with a group of 5115 black and white men and women aged 18-30 years. The Age Gene-Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-RS) includes men and women born 1907-1935 and the HAAS includes Japanese American men born 1900-1919. Both AGES-RS and HAAS cohorts were established in the mid-1960s to answer questions about the heart disease epidemic that became a public health priority during that decade. All studies have similar measures of cardiovascular risk factors in middle-age, which is invaluable when trying to understand epidemiologic studies designed to investigate etiology. Since the mid-life data are similar, and both studies identify dementia cases, this provides an excellent opportunity to replicate findings from one cohort, in the other cohort. The studies also have complementary measures of brain aging;whereas the HAAS includes a rich autopsy sub-study, AGES- Reykjavik has a wealth of cognitive, MRI and clinical data, while CARDIA has state-of-the-art measures on brain MRI. HAAS The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HAAS) began in 1991 as a continuation of the Honolulu Heart program (HHP), a population-based longitudinal study of Japanese-American men born between 1900 and 1919 and living in Oahu, Hawaii when the study began in 1965. Participants were seen at three mid-life exams (1965-68, 1968-70, 1971-74), and at four exams in late-life (1991-93, 1994-96, 1997-99;2001-02). Clinical measurements, demographic, and medical information were collected at each exam. Starting in 1991, global cognitive function was measured in the total sample and cases of dementia ascertained. An autopsy study nested within the cohort was also started in 1991;to date over 600 men have come to autopsy. A MRI sub-study of 575 men was performed in 1995-1996. Active data collection has ended, after 20 years. Data will continue to be analyzed. AGES- Reykjavik is a population-based follow up study of men and women born 1907-1934. The cohort was established in 1967 by the Icelandic Heart Association;participants were followed up to six times. To advance our understanding of genetic and non-genetic risk factors, AGES- Reykjavik focuses on obtaining high quality quantitative measures of intermediate components of major diseases of old age. To this end, extensive bio-image and bio-specimen phenotype measures have been made of multiple physiological systems, including neurocognitive, vascular, musculoskeletal, and body composition, and metabolic measures. CARDIA. The CARDIA Study is a prospective, epidemiologic investigation of the determinants and evolution of cardiovascular risk factors among 5,115 African American and white young adults 18-30 years of age at baseline in 1985-86. Participants were recruited from the populations of four geographic locations (Birmingham, AL;Chicago, IL;Minneapolis, MN;and Oakland, CA). The CARDIA Coordinating Center is also located at the University of Alabama-Birmingham. The study population was approximately balanced according to sex (54% women), ethnicity (52% African American), and education (40% with less than equal to 12 years of education) at each center. After the 1984 baseline, 7 additional examinations were undertaken. In 2010 the CARDIA Brain MRI study was added to the 25 year follow-up exam. For the first time a novel, detailed investigation of the earliest physiologic and morphologic phases of brain disease process will be conducted in a community-based middle age cohort. This information could prove critical in prevention and early management of CVD, before irreversible damage and functional consequences occurs.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
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Palm-Meinders, Inge H; Koppen, Hille; Terwindt, Gisela M et al. (2017) Iron in deep brain nuclei in migraine? CAMERA follow-up MRI findings. Cephalalgia 37:795-800
Ding, Jie; Sigurðsson, Sigurður; Jónsson, Pálmi V et al. (2017) Large Perivascular Spaces Visible on Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Progression, and Risk of Dementia: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. JAMA Neurol 74:1105-1112
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