1.Novel approach to assessing transcription in vivo Expression microarray analysis of Candida glabrata following phagocytosis by human neutrophils was performed, and results were compared with those from C. glabrata incubated under conditions of carbohydrate or nitrogen deprivation. Twenty genes were selected to represent the major cell processes altered by phagocytosis or nutrient deprivation. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) with TaqMan chemistry was used to assess expression of the same genes in spleens of mice infected intravenously with Candida glabrata. The results in spleen closely paralleled gene expression in neutrophils or following carbohydrate deprivation. Fungal cells responded by upregulating alternative energy sources through gluconeogenesis, glyoxylate cycle, and long- chain fatty acid metabolism. Autophagy was likely employed to conserve intracellular resources. Aspartyl protease upregulation occurred and may represent defense against attacks on cell wall integrity. Downregulated genes were in the pathways of protein and ergosterol synthesis. Upregulation of the sterol transport gene AUS1 suggested that murine cholesterol may have been used to replace ergosterol, as has been reported in vitro. C. glabrata isolates in spleens of gp91phox-/- knockout mice with reduced oxidative phagocyte defenses were grossly similar although with a reduced level of response. These results are consistent with reported results of other fungi responding to phagocytosis, indicating that a rapid shift in metabolism is required for growth in a carbohydrate-limited intracellular environment. 2. STB5 Is a Negative Regulator of Azole Resistance in Candida glabrata The opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is recognized for its ability to acquire resistance during prolonged treatment with azole antifungals (J. E. Bennett, K. Izumikawa, and K. A. Marr. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:17731777, 2004). Resistance to azoles is largely mediated by the transcription factor PDR1, resulting in the upregulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins and drug efflux. Studies in the related yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that Pdr1p forms a heterodimer with another transcription factor, Stb5p. In C. glabrata, the open reading frame (ORF) designated CAGL0I02552g has 38.8% amino acid identity with STB5 (YHR178w) and shares an N-terminal Zn2Cys6 binuclear cluster domain and a fungus-specific transcriptional factor domain, prompting us to test for homologous function and a possible role in azole resistance. Complementation of a 4yhr178w (4stb5) mutant with CAGL0I02552g resolved the increased sensitivity to cold, hydrogen peroxide, and caffeine of the mutant, for which reason we designated CAGl0I02552g CgSTB5. Overexpression of CgSTB5 in C. glabrata repressed azole resistance, whereas deletion of CgSTB5 caused a modest increase in resistance. Expression analysis found that CgSTB5 shares many transcriptional targets with CgPDR1 but, unlike the latter, is a negative regulator of pleiotropic drug resistance, including the ABC transporter genes CDR1, PDH1, and YOR1. 3. Antibody to GM-CSF in cryptococcal meningitis Cryptococcal meningitis has been described in immunocompromised patients, as well as in those for whom no immune defect has been identified. GM-CSF regulates the function of phagocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages, critical elements in cryptococcal control. We performed clinical histories, immunological evaluation, and anticytokine autoantibody screening in four current patients with cryptococcal meningitis and identified and tested 103 archived plasma/cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with cryptococcal meningitis. We assessed the ability of antiGM-CSF autoantibodycontaining plasmas to inhibit GM-CSF signaling. We recognized antiGM-CSF autoantibodies in an otherwise healthy female with cryptococcal meningitis who later developed pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Her diagnosis prompted screening of patients with cryptococcal meningitis for anticytokine autoantibodies. We identified seven HIV-negative patients with cryptococcal meningitis who tested positive for high-titer antiGM-CSF autoantibodies. Two of the seven later developed evidence of PAP. Plasma from all patients prevented GM-CSFinduced STAT5 phosphorylation and MIP-1αproduction in normal PBMCs. This effect was limited to their IgG fraction. AntiGM-CSF autoantibodies are associated with some cases of cryptococcal meningitis in otherwise immunocompetent patients. These cases need not have associated PAP. 4.Basidiobolomycosis A 67 year-old Caucasian male from Arizona presented with indolent symptoms of intestinal obstructionand hydronephrosis, found at surgery to be caused by a mass involving the terminal ileum and cecum, extending into the posterior abdominal wall and obstructing the right ureter. Histopathology was diagnostic of basidiobolomycosis. PCR of tissue and sequencing identified the fungus as, Basidiobolus ranarum. During one year of posaconazole treatment, the residual mass shrank, hydronephrosis was relieved and peripheral eosinophilia resolved.

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Support Year
22
Fiscal Year
2013
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$337,013
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