After much effort, laboratories efforts in Lima, Peru and at NIH have made significant progress on a number of projects. In vitro susceptibility of T. solium cysts was determined to enantiomers of albendazole sulfoxide using previous established methods from our laboratory. The (+)-R enantiomer was significantly more active than the (-)-L enantiomer. T. crassiceps was adapted for in vitro susceptibility studies and identified new compounds with activity to cestodes cysts. Monoclonal antibodies were produced to T. solium cysts or excretory secretory products and were extensively characterized. A number seem to be useful to identify antigens in the CSF and serum and are promising in the diagnosis and treatment of complicated disease. The naturally infected pig was developed as a model to understand acute treatment induced host inflammatory reactions to cysts that manifest mostly as seizures in parenchymal disease. We were able to use Evans Blue injection to show blood brain barrier( BBB) dysfunction in treated of naturally degenerating cysts compared these to clear cysts. We used a semi quantitative assessment of the histopathology and immune responses (RT-PCR) to a panel of cytokines and chemokines to compared pretreatment to post treatment and cysts with blue capsules (BBB dysfunction) to cysts with clear cysts. In general inflammatory responses and cyst damage are increased in blue cysts and increase from 48 hr. to 120 hr. Subarachnoid cysticercosis is one of the severe infections in neurocysticercosis. We compared patients with basilar subarachnoid disease to those to parenchymal disease and showed that over 61% of those with subarachnoid disease had spinal involvement compared with little involvement in parenchymal disease. Previously a Cysticercosis Consortium consisting of physicians in North American interested in furthering study and information about neurocysticercosis was formed by myself and Dr. Mahanty. We reviewed and published current information showing that infection occurs in hundreds of millions of people worldwide causing millions of cases of epilepsy. Neurocysticercosis is also present in the U.S. and is one of the most common important morbid infections seen.

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Nash, Theodore E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H et al. (2017) Disease Centered Around Calcified Taenia solium Granuloma. Trends Parasitol 33:65-73
Nash, Theodore E; Ware, JeanAnne M; Mahanty, Siddhartha (2017) Natural History of Patients With Perilesional Edema Around Taenia solium Calcified Granulomas. J Infect Dis 215:1141-1147
Del Brutto, O H; Nash, T E; White Jr, A C et al. (2017) Revised diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. J Neurol Sci 372:202-210
Cangalaya, Carla; Bustos, Javier A; Calcina, Juan et al. (2017) Radiological evolution of porcine neurocysticercosis after combined antiparasitic treatment with praziquantel and albendazole. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 11:e0005624
Del Brutto, O H; Nash, T E; White Jr, A C et al. (2017) Revised set of diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis (in reply to Garg and Malhotra). J Neurol Sci 373:350-351
Williamson, Peter R; Nash, Theodore E; Williamson, Kim C et al. (2016) CNS infections in 2015: emerging catastrophic infections and new insights into neuroimmunological host damage. Lancet Neurol 15:17-9
Paredes, Adriana; Sáenz, Patricia; Marzal, Miguel W et al. (2016) Anti-Taenia solium monoclonal antibodies for the detection of parasite antigens in body fluids from patients with neurocysticercosis. Exp Parasitol 166:37-43
Cangalaya, Carla; Bustos, Javier A; Calcina, Juan et al. (2016) Perilesional Inflammation in Neurocysticercosis - Relationship Between Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Evans Blue Staining and Histopathology in the Pig Model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10:e0004869
Ware, JeanAnne M; Nash, Theodore E (2016) The Lack of Association of Eosinophilia and Neurocysticercosis at Clinical Presentation: A Retrospective Analysis of Cases Seen at the National Institutes of Health, 1985-2015. Am J Trop Med Hyg 95:1432-1434
Nash, Theodore E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Loeb, Jeffrey A et al. (2015) Neurocysticercosis: A natural human model of epileptogenesis. Epilepsia 56:177-83

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