Our focus as an HIV research clinic continues to address several important aspects of the following questions: how to optimally use and administer multi-class combination anti-retroviral therapy;how to integrate immune based therapies within a framework of ongoing antiretroviral therapy;how to determine the optimal time for initiation of antiretroviral strategy in order to preserve and reconstitute immune function while at the same time minimizing long-term antiretroviral toxicities, and what are some of the predictive factors for the development of adverse consequences of progressive HIV infection both on and off antiretroviral medications. In the Clinical Research Section (CRS) of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation we remain dedicated to the successful enrollment and completion of the "START" study (Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment) aimed at determining whether early introduction of ART in previously-untreated patients translates into better clinical outcomes. Current Department of Health and Human Services Antiretroviral Guidelines recommend the initiation of HAART for HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cell counts of 500 cells/L or less, but also strongly recommend consideration of initiating antiretroviral treatment even in those with higher CD4 cell counts. However, these recommendations are controversial in that they are based upon the outcomes of large observational trials and expert opinion rather than on data from a randomized clinical trial. In order to address this question more rigorously and definitely, the START trial is a large multi-national trial enrolling antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals with CD4 cell counts above 500 cells/L and randomly assigning them either to begin HAART immediately or to delay the start of HAART until the CD4 cell count falls below 350 cells/L. The primary goal of this 4-5 year trial is to compare the two arms in terms of the cumulative incidence of adverse consequences (both AIDS-related and non-AIDS related) ascribable either to progressive HIV infection or to the toxicities of HAART itself. With this and with our other HIV trials we also continue our efforts to improve access to clinical trials by local minority populations through an outreach that includes a close relationship with local clinics for medically under-served populations.

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