Cross-linking of the collagen binding receptor LAIR-1 in vitro delivers an inhibitory signal that is able to down-regulate activation-mediated signals. To study the in vivo function of LAIR-1, we generated LAIR-1-/- mice. They are healthy and fertile, and have normal longevity;however, they show certain phenotypic characteristics distinct from wild-type mice, including increased numbers of splenic B, T regulatory and dendritic cells. As LAIR-1-/- mice age, the splenic T cell population shows a higher frequency of activated and memory T cells. Since LAIR-1+/+ and LAIR-1-/- T cells traffic with equal proficiency to peripheral lymphoid organs, this is not likely due to abnormal T lymphocyte trafficking. LAIR-1-/- mice have lower serum levels of IgG1 and, in response to T-dependent immunization with TNP-OVA, switch less efficiently to antigen specific IgG2a and IgG2b, while switching to IgG1 is not affected. Several mouse disease models, including EAE and colitis, were utilized to examine the effect of LAIR-1 deficiency and no differences in the responses of LAIR-1-/- and LAIR-1+/+ mice were observed. Taken together, these observations indicate that LAIR-1 plays a role in regulating immune cells and suggest that any adverse effects of its absence may be balanced in vivo by other inhibitory receptors. The immunomodulatory receptor CD300a is expressed on human B cells. Naive B cells express very low levels of this receptor, while memory B cells and plasma blasts/cells express variable levels of CD300a. Germinal center B cells are negative for CD300a expression. Stimulation of naive B cells via BCR and TLR9, along with T cell help, failed to up-regulate CD300a cell surface expression despite the increased expression of the memory marker CD27 and the down-regulation of CD305. TLR9 stimulation alone significantly increased CD300a expression on memory B cells, whereas IL-4 and TGF-beta1 act as negative regulators of CD300a expression on memory B cells. Co-ligation of BCR and CD300a inhibits Ca2+ mobilization and NFAT transcriptional activity evoked by BCR ligation alone. Suppression of CD300a expression by primary B cells with siRNA resulted in increased BCR-mediated proliferation, thereby confirming the inhibitory capacity of CD300a. Finally, we showed that of CD300a expression levels are down-regulated in the circulating B cells of HIV-infected patients. Altogether, these data demonstrate a novel mechanism for suppressing the activity of B cells and suggest a potential role for CD300a in the B cell dysfunction observed in HIV induced immunodeficiency. It has been shown that its CD300a ligation inhibits activation signals on cells of both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. The ligands for CD300a have not been identified. we showed that a CD300a-Ig fusion protein specifically binds to apoptotic cells that are evolutionary apart, such as human and insect cells, suggesting that the ligand has to be conserved. Using surface plasmon resonance, ultracentrifugation, ELISA, and reporter cell assays, we identified phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS), 2 phospholipids that translocate to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of dead cells, as the ligands for CD300a. Mutational and structural modeling studies identified residues that are involved in the binding of CD300a to PE and PS and that form a cavity where the hydrophilic heads of PE and PS, can penetrate. CD300a down-regulates the uptake of apoptotic cells by macrophages and its ectopic expression in CD300a-negative cell lines also decreased the engulfment of dead cells. Collectively, our results indicate that PE and PS are ligands for CD300a, and that this interaction plays an important role in regulating the removal of dead cells. Reportedly, CD300f negatively regulates interactions between dendritic and T cells, and acts as an anti-inflammatory molecule in a multiple sclerosis mouse model. We found that a CD300f/Fc chimeric protein specifically binds to apoptotic/dead splenocytes and to apoptotic cells from starved or irradiated lymphocytic cell lines;an observation extended to insect cells. CD300f also binds PMA/ionomycin-activated splenocytes and Ag-stimulated T cells, an interaction inhibited by Annexin V. By ELISA, co-sedimentation and surface plasmon resonance using phospholipid containing liposomes, we show that CD300f preferentially binds phosphatidylserine and requires a metal ion. Exogenous expression of CD300f in cell lines results in enhanced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. We conclude that expression of CD300f conveys additional capacity to recognize phosphatidylserine to myeloid cells. The result of this recognition may vary with the overall qualitative and quantitative receptor content, as well as signaling capacity of the expressing effector cell, but enhanced phagocytosis is one measurable outcome. Toso is a member of immunoglobulin gene superfamily that is highly expressed on NK cells. We found that the cell surface receptor Toso is dramatically downregulated by in vitro stimulation of human T and NK cells with IL-2 in a STAT5-dependent manner. The fact that IL-2 is known to prime NK and T cells for Fas/TNF-mediated activation-induced cell death (AICD) fits nicely with the original and recent descriptions of Toso as an inhibitor of Fas/TNF-induced apoptosis. In support of this possibility, effector memory T cells express markedly lower levels of Toso than those of naive T cells, indicating that activation in vivo correlates with the downregulation of Toso. Moreover, in vitro activation of memory T cells through TCR dramatically downregulates Toso expression compared with that of naive CD4 T cells. However, overexpression of Toso in human NK cells and Jurkat T cells does not inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis, and, in agreement with other recent reports, Toso clearly functions as an IgM receptor. Unlike CD16, Toso expression by NK cells does not convey cytotoxic potential, but its ligation does trigger intracellular signaling in NK cells. In summary, our data indicate that Toso is a functional IgM receptor that is capable of activating signaling molecules, is regulated by IL-2, and is not inherently an antiapoptotic molecule.

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Chen, Zhengshan; Shojaee, Seyedmehdi; Buchner, Maike et al. (2016) Corrigendum: Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Nature 534:138
Wang, Hongsheng; Coligan, John E; Morse 3rd, Herbert C (2016) Emerging Functions of Natural IgM and Its Fc Receptor FCMR in Immune Homeostasis. Front Immunol 7:99
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Tian, Linjie; Choi, Seung-Chul; Murakami, Yousuke et al. (2014) p85α recruitment by the CD300f phosphatidylserine receptor mediates apoptotic cell clearance required for autoimmunity suppression. Nat Commun 5:3146

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