There are two major types of infectious vaccinia virus particles: mature virions (MVs) and enveloped virions (EVs). The MVs, which consist of a DNA-protein core surrounded by a lipoprotein membrane, are assembled in cytoplasmic viral factories and contain about 80 polypeptides. A subpopulation of MVs is wrapped by modified trans-Golgi or endosomal cisterna containing additional viral membrane proteins, transported along microtubules to the cell periphery, and exits the cell through the plasma membrane. The EVs are essentially MVs with an additional membrane that is disrupted prior to fusion of the MV with the cell during entry. One of the most challenging questions is how the initial viral membrane of the immature virion is formed. Using biochemical, genetic and microscopic approaches, we have obtained evidence that the endoplasmic reticulum is the source of the viral membrane and have identified several viral proteins involved in this process.

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Erlandson, Karl J; Bisht, Himani; Weisberg, Andrea S et al. (2016) Poxviruses Encode a Reticulon-Like Protein that Promotes Membrane Curvature. Cell Rep 14:2084-91
Sivan, Gilad; Weisberg, Andrea S; Americo, Jeffrey L et al. (2016) Retrograde Transport from Early Endosomes to the trans-Golgi Network Enables Membrane Wrapping and Egress of Vaccinia Virus Virions. J Virol 90:8891-905
Hyun, Seong-In; Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Moss, Bernard (2015) Topology of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Cellular and Viral Proteins Determined with Split-GFP. Traffic 16:787-95
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Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Weisberg, Andrea S; Moss, Bernard (2013) Association of the vaccinia virus a11 protein with the endoplasmic reticulum and crescent precursors of immature virions. J Virol 87:10195-206
Satheshkumar, P S; Olano, L Renee; Hammer, Carl H et al. (2013) Interactions of the vaccinia virus a19 protein. J Virol 87:10710-20
Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Weisberg, Andrea S; Moss, Bernard (2013) Direct formation of vaccinia virus membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum in the absence of the newly characterized L2-interacting protein A30.5. J Virol 87:12313-26
Maruri-Avidal, Liliana; Weisberg, Andrea S; Bisht, Himani et al. (2013) Analysis of viral membranes formed in cells infected by a vaccinia virus L2-deletion mutant suggests their origin from the endoplasmic reticulum. J Virol 87:1861-71

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