Computed Tomography Organ Dose Calculations - New tools and methods are being developed by using Monte Carlo transport technique to calculate organ dose for pediatric and adult patients undergoing computed tomography examinations. The organ dose estimates are being used for retrospective epidemiologic cohort and case-control studiesCancer Risks from CT Scan Use in the United States - We are estimating the potential radiation-related cancer risks that may be related to current levels of CT use in adults, and also conducting radiation risk-benefit analyses for CT screening examinations.Early Life Radiation and the Risk of Child Cancer - Studying radiation exposure during early life is of particular importance, given that many tissues are more susceptible to radiation effects in utero and at younger age of exposure. Results of our analysis, published in February 2011, showed some indication of a slight, non-significant increase in risk for all childhood cancer and leukemia with exposure to ionizing radiation in utero, and potential increased risk of lymphoma following exposure to x-rays in early infancy based on small numbersPediatric CT Scans - REB initiated an international cohort study of 180,000 children to evaluate the potential risk of cancer associated with radiation exposure from pediatric CT scans. A comprehensive organ CT dose database was developed in support of a study of pediatric cancer risk and CT exposure. The results from this study published in 2012 suggested for the first time that there are increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors after CT scans in childhood.Pooled Analysis of Radiation-Related Brain Tumors - Preliminary arrangements have been made to conduct a pooled analysis of the risk of radiation-related malignant and benign brain tumors, including data from studies worldwide that have information on radiation dose to the brain for individualsMolecular and Histopathologic Clues to the Understanding of Thyroid Cancer Incidence - Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the last few decades. We are evaluating whether alterations in molecular markers and histopathology of papillary carcinoma have changed over the last three decades, using thyroid tumor tissue collected from one US hospital. Molecular markers under investigation are BRAF, N-RAS, K-Ras, H-Ras, and RET/PTC.Pooled analysis of Radiation-Related Thyroid Cancer- To improve our understanding of the etiology of thyroid cancer, REB scientists have set up an international consortium to study radiogenic thyroid cancer in children and adults. Statistical models of the radiation dose-response will be assessed as well as potential interaction with gender, age at exposure, attained age, and time since exposure. Results for children were submitted for publication in 2012.

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Lamart, Stephanie; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, Andre et al. (2016) S values for 131I based on the ICRP adult voxel phantoms. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 168:92-110
Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Salotti, Jane A; McHugh, Kieran et al. (2016) Relationship between paediatric CT scans and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: assessment of the impact of underlying conditions. Br J Cancer 114:388-94
Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Kleinerman, Ruth A (2015) CT Scanning: Is the Contrast Material Enhancing the Radiation Dose and Cancer Risk as Well as the Image? Radiology 275:627-9
Chodick, Gabriel; Levin, Moran; Kleinerman, Ruth A et al. (2015) Differences in characteristics of pediatric patients undergoing computed tomography between hospitals and primary care settings: implications for assessing cancer follow-up studies. Isr J Health Policy Res 4:33
Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Kleinerman, Ruth A; McAreavey, Dorothea et al. (2015) Cardiac MR Imaging and the Specter of Double-Strand Breaks. Radiology 277:329-31
Meulepas, Johanna M; Ronckers, Cécile M; Smets, Anne M J B et al. (2014) Leukemia and brain tumors among children after radiation exposure from CT scans: design and methodological opportunities of the Dutch Pediatric CT Study. Eur J Epidemiol 29:293-301
Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib (2014) Evaluation of radiation dose to anthropomorphic paediatric models from positron-emitting labelled tracers. Phys Med Biol 59:1165-87
Miglioretti, Diana L; Zhang, Yue; Johnson, Eric et al. (2014) Personalized technologist dose audit feedback for reducing patient radiation exposure from CT. J Am Coll Radiol 11:300-8
Lee, Eunah; Lamart, Stephanie; Little, Mark P et al. (2014) Database of normalised computed tomography dose index for retrospective CT dosimetry. J Radiol Prot 34:363-88
Cantley, Justin L; Hanlon, Justin; Chell, Erik et al. (2013) Influence of eye size and beam entry angle on dose to non-targeted tissues of the eye during stereotactic x-ray radiosurgery of AMD. Phys Med Biol 58:6887-96

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