In this year, we were focused on two major sub-projects. First, we employed glutamate-sensitive sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry to evaluate rapid changes in glutamate following exposure to natural arousing stimuli, cocaine and nicotine. Second, we employed glucose-sensitive sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry to evaluate rapid fluctuations in brain glucose levels following exposure to natural stimuli and drugs of abuse (cocaine and nicotine). This work will be expanded during the next years to include more complicated behavioral paradigms that involve the use of addictive drugs.

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National Institute on Drug Abuse
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Solis Jr, Ernesto; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Shaham, Yavin et al. (2017) Intravenous Heroin Induces Rapid Brain Hypoxia and Hyperglycemia that Precede Brain Metabolic Response. eNeuro 4:
Bola, R Aaron; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2017) Brain temperature effects of intravenous heroin: State dependency, environmental modulation, and the effects of dose. Neuropharmacology 126:271-280
Solis Jr, Ernesto; Bola, R Aaron; Fasulo, Bradley J et al. (2017) Brain Hyperglycemia Induced by Heroin: Association with Metabolic Neural Activation. ACS Chem Neurosci 8:265-271
Solis Jr, Ernesto; Cameron-Burr, Keaton T; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2017) Rapid Physiological Fluctuations in Nucleus Accumbens Oxygen Levels Induced by Arousing Stimuli: Relationships with Changes in Brain Glucose and Metabolic Neural Activation. Front Integr Neurosci 11:9
Bola, R Aaron; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2016) Robust Brain Hyperglycemia during General Anesthesia: Relationships with Metabolic Brain Inhibition and Vasodilation. Front Physiol 7:39
Wakabayashi, Ken T; Spekterman, Laurence; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2016) Experience-dependent escalation of glucose drinking and the development of glucose preference over fructose - association with glucose entry into the brain. Eur J Neurosci 43:1422-30
Wakabayashi, Ken T; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2015) Central and peripheral contributions to dynamic changes in nucleus accumbens glucose induced by intravenous cocaine. Front Neurosci 9:42
Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Wakabayashi, Ken T (2015) Parsing glucose entry into the brain: novel findings obtained with enzyme-based glucose biosensors. ACS Chem Neurosci 6:108-16
Wakabayashi, Ken T; Myal, Stephanie E; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2015) Fluctuations in nucleus accumbens extracellular glutamate and glucose during motivated glucose-drinking behavior: dissecting the neurochemistry of reward. J Neurochem 132:327-41
Wakabayashi, Ken T; Kiyatkin, Eugene A (2015) Behavior-associated and post-consumption glucose entry into the nucleus accumbens extracellular space during glucose free-drinking in trained rats. Front Behav Neurosci 9:173

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