Thyroid hormone is necessary for the development of the nervous system. A lack of thyroid hormone in early development in the mammalian fetus or neonate can result in mental retardation and other neurological defects, including deafness. Hearing is one of the most sensitive functions that is under the control of thyroid hormone. However, despite the importance of thyroid hormone for hearing, its actions in promoting the development of the auditory system are incompletely understood. The goals of the project are to elucidate the functions of thyroid hormone in the auditory system and to identify the genes that mediate these functions. Progress: 1. Study of a mouse strain with a novel mutation in the Thra thyroid hormone receptor gene receptor has revealed a deafness phenotype. Preliminary data indicate a phenotype that differs from the cochlear phenotype previously associated with mutations in the Thrb gene, suggesting possible independent functions for the Thra and Thrb genes in the development of hearing (collaboration with Dr. S-Y. Cheng, NCI, Dr. Matt Kelley, NIDCD). 2. Recent data show that genes encoding deiodinases, thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes, are important for hearing. The results suggest that changing patterns of expression of the deiodinase genes encoding both activating and inactivating enzymes (Dio2 and Dio3, respectively) cause deafness in mouse genetic models. The findings suggest that these enzymes are important within target tissues for modifying precisely where and when thyroid hormone acts in the auditory system. Thus, the action of thyroid hormone upon the auditory system incorporates both an endocrine and a paracrine component involving local control by deiodinases. 3. A screen was performed to identify cochlear genes that may be abnormally expressed in deaf mice defective for thyroid hormone signaling. Several genes have been identified as candidate genes that reside downstream of the thyroid hormone signal in auditory development. Further studies are investigating the expression and function of these candidate target genes in the auditory system.

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Ng, Lily; Kelley, Matthew W; Forrest, Douglas (2013) Making sense with thyroid hormone--the role of T(3) in auditory development. Nat Rev Endocrinol 9:296-307
Cordas, Emily A; Ng, Lily; Hernandez, Arturo et al. (2012) Thyroid hormone receptors control developmental maturation of the middle ear and the size of the ossicular bones. Endocrinology 153:1548-60
Sharlin, David S; Visser, Theo J; Forrest, Douglas (2011) Developmental and cell-specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the mouse cochlea. Endocrinology 152:5053-64
Wangemann, Philine; Kim, Hyoung-Mi; Billings, Sara et al. (2009) Developmental delays consistent with cochlear hypothyroidism contribute to failure to develop hearing in mice lacking Slc26a4/pendrin expression. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 297:F1435-47
Ng, Lily; Hernandez, Arturo; He, Wenxuan et al. (2009) A protective role for type 3 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-inactivating enzyme, in cochlear development and auditory function. Endocrinology 150:1952-60