Nucleosome placement and repositioning can direct transcription of individual genes; however, the precise interactions of these events are complex and largely unresolved at the whole-genome level. The Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA binding (CHD) Type III proteins are a subfamily of SWI2/SNF2 proteins that control nucleosome positioning and are associated with several complex human disorders, including CHARGE syndrome and autism. Type III CHDs are required for multicellular development of animals and Dictyostelium but are absent in plants and yeast. These CHDs can mediate nucleosome translocation in vitro, but their in vivo mechanism is unknown. Here, we use genome-wide analysis of nucleosome positioning and transcription profiling to investigate the in vivo relationship between nucleosome positioning and gene expression during development of wild-type (WT) Dictyostelium and mutant cells lacking ChdC, a Type III CHD protein ortholog. We demonstrate major nucleosome positional changes associated with developmental gene regulation in WT. Loss of chdC caused an increase of intragenic nucleosome spacing and misregulation of gene expression, affecting 50% of the genes that are repositioned during WT development. These analyses demonstrate active nucleosome repositioning during Dictyostelium multicellular development, establish an in vivo function of CHD Type III chromatin remodeling proteins in this process, and reveal the detailed relationship between nucleosome positioning and gene regulation, as cells transition between developmental states. Initial immunological defense mechanisms to pathogen invasion rely on innate pathways of chemotaxis and phagocytosis, original to ancient phagocytes. Chemotaxis and cell migration play pivotal roles in normal physiological processes such as embryogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing, as well as in pathological processes including chronic inflammatory disease and cancer metastasis. Although chemotaxis has been well-studied in mammalian and model systems using purified chemoattractants in defined conditions, directed movement toward live bacteria has been more difficult to assess. Dictyostelium discoideum is a professional phagocyte that chemotaxes toward bacteria during growth-phase in a process to locate nutrient sources. Using Dictyostelium as a model, we have developed a system that is able to quantify chemotaxis to very high sensitivity. Here, Dictyostelium can detect various chemoattractants at concentrations <1 nM. Given this exceedingly sensitive signal response, Dictyostelium will migrate directionally toward live gram positive and gram negative bacteria, in a highly quantifiable manner, and dependent upon bacterially-secreted chemoattractants. Additionally, we have developed a real-time, quantitative assay for phagocytosis of live gram positive and gram negative bacteria. To extend the analyses of endocytic functions, we further modified the system to quantify cellular uptake via macropinocytosis of smaller (<100 kDa) molecules. These various approaches provide novel means to dissect potential for identification of novel chemoattractants and mechanistic factors that are essential for chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and/or macropinocytosis and for more detailed understanding in host-pathogen interactive defenses. Novel chemotaxis/migration inhibitors are desirable for developing effective therapeutics and probing molecular mechanisms. We describe a fluorescence-based phenotypic assay in a 1536-well plate format for high-throughput screening of novel inhibitors of chemotaxis/migration within complex libraries of thousands of compounds. Although the assay utilizes the unique cellular response properties of Dictyostelium, the compounds identified are able to inhibit chemotaxis of mammalian cells. In addition, a parallel cell cytotoxicity counter-screen with an ATP content assay is described that eliminates cytotoxic compounds from the screen. This novel compound screening approach enables rapid identification of novel lead compounds that inhibit chemotaxis in human and other cells for drug development and research tools. Lipid droplet (LD) coating proteins are essential for the formation and stability of intracellular LDs. Plin2 is an abundant LD coating protein in skeletal muscle, but its importance for muscle function is unclear. We show that myotubes established from Plin2-/- mice contain reduced content of LDs and accumulate less oleic acid (OA) in triacylglycerol (TAG) due to elevated LD hydrolysis in comparison with Plin2+/+ myotubes. The reduced ability to store TAG in LDs in Plin2-/- myotubes is accompanied by a shift in energy metabolism. Plin2-/- myotubes are characterized by increased oxidation of OA, lower glycogen synthesis, and reduced glucose oxidation in comparison with Plin2+/+ myotubes, perhaps reflecting competition between FAs and glucose as part of the Randle cycle. In accord with these metabolic changes, Plin2-/- myotubes have elevated expression of Ppara and Ppargc1a, transcription factors that stimulate expression of genes important for FA oxidation, whereas genes involved in glucose uptake and oxidation are suppressed. Loss of Plin2 had no impact on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Our results suggest that Plin2 is essential for protecting the pool of skeletal muscle LDs to avoid an uncontrolled hydrolysis of stored TAG and to balance skeletal muscle energy metabolism. Myocardial triglycerides stored in lipid droplets are important in regulating the intracellular delivery of fatty acids for energy generation in mitochondria, for membrane biosynthesis, and as agonists for intracellular signaling. Previously, we showed that deficiency in the lipid droplet protein perilipin 5 (Plin5) markedly reduces triglyceride storage in cardiomyocytes and increases the flux of fatty acids into phospholipids. Here, we investigated whether Plin5 deficiency in cardiomyocytes alters mitochondrial function. We found that Plin5 deficiency reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity. Furthermore, in mitochondria from Plin5-/- hearts, the fatty acyl composition of phospholipids in mitochondrial membranes was altered and mitochondrial membrane depolarization was markedly compromised. These findings suggest that mitochondria isolated from hearts deficient in Plin5, have specific functional defects. Beige adipocytes can dissipate energy as heat. Elaborate communication between metabolism and gene expression is important in the regulation of beige adipocytes. Although lipid droplet (LD) binding proteins play important roles in adipose tissue biology, it remains unknown whether perilipin 3 (Plin3) is involved in the regulation of beige adipocyte formation and thermogenic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that Plin3 ablation stimulates beige adipocytes and thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Compared with wild-type mice, Plin3 knockout mice were cold tolerant and displayed enhanced basal and stimulated lipolysis in iWAT, inducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activation. In adipocytes, Plin3 deficiency promoted PPAR target gene and uncoupling protein 1 expression and multilocular LD formation upon cold stimulus. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor 21 expression and secretion were upregulated, which was attributable to activated PPAR in Plin3-deficient adipocytes. These data suggest that Plin3 acts as an intrinsic protective factor preventing futile beige adipocyte formation by limiting lipid metabolism and thermogenic gene expression.

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U.S. National Inst Diabetes/Digst/Kidney
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Meena, Netra P; Kimmel, Alan R (2018) Quantification of Live Bacterial Sensing for Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis and of Macropinocytosis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 8:62
Lee, Yun Kyung; Sohn, Jee Hyung; Han, Ji Seul et al. (2018) Perilipin 3 Deficiency Stimulates Thermogenic Beige Adipocytes Through PPAR? Activation. Diabetes 67:791-804
Meena, Netra Pal; Kimmel, Alan R (2017) Chemotactic network responses to live bacteria show independence of phagocytosis from chemoreceptor sensing. Elife 6:
Liao, Xin-Hua; Kimmel, Alan R (2017) A Unique High-Throughput Assay to Identify Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Chemotaxis and Migration. Curr Protoc Cell Biol 74:12.11.1-12.11.13
Feng, Yuan Z; Lund, Jenny; Li, Yuchuan et al. (2017) Loss of perilipin 2 in cultured myotubes enhances lipolysis and redirects the metabolic energy balance from glucose oxidation towards fatty acid oxidation. J Lipid Res :
Andersson, Linda; Drevinge, Christina; Mardani, Ismena et al. (2017) Deficiency in perilipin 5 reduces mitochondrial function and membrane depolarization in mouse hearts. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 91:9-13
Platt, James L; Kent, Nicholas A; Kimmel, Alan R et al. (2017) Regulation of nucleosome positioning by a CHD Type III chromatin remodeler and its relationship to developmental gene expression in Dictyostelium. Genome Res 27:591-600
Liao, Xin-Hua; Meena, Netra Pal; Southall, Noel et al. (2016) A High-Throughput, Multi-Cell Phenotype Assay for the Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Chemotaxis/Migration. Sci Rep 6:22273
Kimmel, Alan R; Sztalryd, Carole (2016) The Perilipins: Major Cytosolic Lipid Droplet-Associated Proteins and Their Roles in Cellular Lipid Storage, Mobilization, and Systemic Homeostasis. Annu Rev Nutr 36:471-509
Drevinge, Christina; Dalen, Knut T; Mannila, Maria Nastase et al. (2016) Perilipin 5 is protective in the ischemic heart. Int J Cardiol 219:446-54

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