Genistein and daidzein are estrogenic isoflavones found in soybeans. Although they are much less potent than estradiol, infants fed soy formula have serum concentrations that are up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than estradiol. We have been in the field with a longitudinal study of infants up to 9 months old, looking in detail at the growth and development of their estrogen-responsive tissue as well as sex hormones and gonadotropins. Enrolllment of the 270 children will be complete by fall, 2013.

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Chen, Aimin; Feresu, Shingairai A; Fernandez, Cristina et al. (2009) Maternal obesity and the risk of infant death in the United States. Epidemiology 20:74-81
Cao, Y A N G; Calafat, Antonia M; Doerge, Daniel R et al. (2008) Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol :