The overarching goal of the Fox lab is the study of metabolic risk factors and cardiovascular disease. As such, Dr. Fox works in three major content areas: obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Her work spans traditional population science and genetic epidemiology. Obesity, Ectopic Fat, and Vascular Disease In terms of obesity, Dr. Fox has created a computed-tomography body composition database by using standard imaging techniques to assess abdominal visceral fat, pericardial fat, mediastinal fat, perivascular fat, fatty liver, and renal sinus fat. Her work focuses on both the systemic and local manifestations of body fat distribution, working with the concept that fat can have locally toxic effects on the vasculature and nearby anatomic structures. A cornerstone of Dr. Foxs work in this area has revolved around the mentoring of students, pre-doctoral fellows, post-doctoral fellows, and junior faculty members. Dr. Fox is also involved in the genetics and genomics of obesity and body composition. She leads the CHARGE adiposity group, and is an active participant in the GIANT consortium, a genome-wide association consortium dedicated to uncovering genomic loci for anthropometric traits. Dr. Fox has also conducted GWAS of visceral and pericardial fat, which have also revealed unique loci for ectopic fat distribution. Because genome-wide association identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms that are common, sequencing studies can help uncover rare variants. As part of the CHARGE-S consortium, sequencing is ongoing for generalized obesity and body composition. Chronic Kidney Disease Dr. Fox also works to understand the role of chronic kidney disease. Dr. Fox is interested in traditional and novel risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease is an important risk factor for heart disease, and often is undetected. Thus, improving our ability to detect and predict chronic kidney disease is an important scientific goal. The Fox lab has recently developed a renal risk score, and showed that standard clinical risk factors including age, hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria can improve our ability to predict who will develop kidney disease within a 10-year interval. Urinary biomarkers can provide insight into risk prediction, but also provide information regarding the location of renal injury, which may have prognostic significance. The Fox lab is now examining a panel of 14 urinary biomarkers. Parallel to epidemiologic and biomarker work, Dr. Fox leads the CHARGE and CARe renal working groups, two consortia which focus on the genetics of renal function. Dr. Fox is also the founder and convener of CKDGen, an international consortium dedicated to uncovering genes for renal disease. CKDGen includes more than 35 participating studies with over 100,000 individual participants and 150 investigators. This group is rapidly working to uncover even more genes for kidney disease. In the past year, this work has lead to the discovery of several new loci for renal function and related traits. This work has also evolved into sequencing, and the CHARGE-S consortium is sequencing 400 cases of chronic kidney disease. Finally, because genome-wide association offers a statistical association only, Dr. Fox has set up a collaboration with a zebra fish lab to begin to understand the functional consequences of some newly uncovered loci for renal function. Diabetes Finally, Dr. Fox works in the area of diabetes, primarily to understand trends in diabetes as a risk factor for heart disease, as well as treatment patterns over time. Dr. Fox is currently working on a lifecourse analysis to understanding the evolution of CVD risk factors associated with diabetes. Staff: Dr. Gearoid McMahon is a post-doctoral fellow in the Fox lab. As a nephrologist, his work focuses on chronic kidney disease. Dr. Klara Rosenquist is a fellow in Endocrinology at the Brigham and Womens Hospital and a Special Volunteer in the Fox lab. She is working primarily on the associations of ectopic fat depots and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Dr. Tobin Abraham is a fellow in Endocrinology at the Brigham and Womens Hospital and a Special Volunteer in the Fox lab. He is working on binge eating and metabolic risk factors.

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Rutter, Martin K; Sullivan, Lisa M; Fox, Caroline S et al. (2014) Baseline levels, and changes over time in body mass index and fasting insulin, and their relationship to change in metabolic trait clustering. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 12:372-80
Fox, Caroline S; Pencina, Michael J; Heard-Costa, Nancy L et al. (2014) Trends in the association of parental history of obesity over 60 years. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22:919-24
Wang, H; Troy, L M; Rogers, G T et al. (2014) Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: the Framingham Heart Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 38:299-305
McMahon, Gearoid M; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Hwang, Shih-Jen et al. (2014) The association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in CUBN and the risk of albuminuria and cardiovascular disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 29:342-7
Friedman, Daniel J; Wang, Na; Meigs, James B et al. (2014) Pericardial fat is associated with atrial conduction: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Heart Assoc 3:e000477
Green, Angela K; Jacques, Paul F; Rogers, Gail et al. (2014) Sugar-sweetened beverages and prevalence of the metabolically abnormal phenotype in the Framingham Heart Study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22:E157-63
Liu, Ching-Ti; Young, Kristin L; Brody, Jennifer A et al. (2014) Sequence variation in TMEM18 in association with body mass index: Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium Targeted Sequencing Study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet 7:344-9
Roseman, Daniel A; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Manders, Emily S et al. (2014) Renal artery calcium, cardiovascular risk factors, and indexes of renal function. Am J Cardiol 113:156-61
McMahon, Gearoid M; Preis, Sarah R; Hwang, Shih-Jen et al. (2014) Mid-adulthood risk factor profiles for CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 25:2633-41
Liu, Christine K; Lyass, Asya; Massaro, Joseph M et al. (2014) Chronic kidney disease defined by cystatin C predicts mobility disability and changes in gait speed: the Framingham Offspring Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 69:301-7

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