The intracellular enzyme urea amidolyase (Dur1,2p) enables C. albicans to utilize urea as a sole nitrogen source. Because deletion of the DUR1,2 gene reduces survival of C. albicans co-cultured with a murine macrophage cell line, we investigated the role of Dur1,2p in pathogenesis using a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. A dur1,2/dur1,2-deleted strain was significantly less virulent than the wild-type strain, showing significantly higher survival rate, better renal function, and decreased and less sustained fungal colonization in kidney and brain. Complementation of the mutant restored virulence. DUR1,2 deletion resulted in a milder host inflammatory reaction. Immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and magnetic resonance imaging showed decreased phagocytic infiltration into infected kidneys. Systemic cytokine levels of wild-type mice infected with the dur1,2 mutant showed a more balanced systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Host gene expression and protein analysis in infected kidneys revealed parallel changes in the local immune response. Significant differences were observed in the kidney IL-1 inflammatory pathway, IL-15 signaling, MAP kinase signaling, and the alternative complement pathway. We conclude that Dur1,2p is important for kidney colonization during disseminated candidiasis and contributes to an unbalanced host inflammatory response and subsequent renal failure. Therefore, this Candida-specific enzyme may represent a useful drug target to protect the host from kidney damage associated with disseminated candidiasis. Disseminated candidiasis primarily targets the kidneys and brain in mice and humans. Damage to these critical organs leads to the high mortality associated with such infections, and invasion across the blood- brain barrier can result in fungal meningoencephalitis. Candida albicans can penetrate a brain endothelial cell barrier in vitro through transcellular migration, but this mechanism has not been confirmed in vivo. MRI imaging using the extracellular vascular contrast agent Gd-DTPA demonstrated that integrity of the blood- brain barrier is lost during C. albicans invasion. Intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy was used to provide the first real time demonstration of C. albicans colonizing the living brain, where both yeast and filamentous forms of the pathogen were found. Furthermore, we adapted a previously described method utilizing MRI to monitor inflammatory cell recruitment into infected tissues in mice. Macrophages and other phagocytes were visualized in kidney and brain by administering ultra-small iron oxide particles. In addition to obtaining new insights into the passage of C. albicans across brain microvasculature, these imaging methods provide useful tools to further study the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections, define the roles of Candida virulence genes in kidney versus brain infection, and assess new therapeutic measures for drug development. Disseminated Candida albicans infection results in high morbidity and mortality despite treatment with existing antifungal drugs. Recent studies suggest that modulating the host immune response can improve survival, but specific host targets for accomplishing this goal remain to be identified. The extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 is released at sites of tissue injury and modulates several immune functions, but its role in C. albicans pathogenesis has not been investigated. Here, we show that mice lacking thrombospondin-1 have an advantage in surviving disseminated candidiasis and more efficiently clear the initial colonization from kidneys despite exhibiting fewer infiltrating leukocytes. By examining local and systemic cytokine responses to C. albicans and other standard inflammatory stimuli, we identify a crucial function of phagocytes in this enhanced resistance. Subcutaneous air pouch and systemic candidiasis models demonstrated that endogenous thrombospondin-1 enhances the early innate immune response against C. albicans and promotes activation of inflammatory macrophages (inducible nitric oxide synthase+, IL6-high, TNFalpha-high, IL10-low), release of the chemokines MIP-2, JE, MIP-1alpha, and RANTES, and CXCR2-driven polymorphonuclear leukocytes recruitment. However, thrombospondin-1 inhibited the phagocytic capacity of inflammatory leukocytes in vivo and in vitro, resulting in increased fungal burden in the kidney and increased mortality in wild type mice. Thus, thrombospondin-1 enhances the pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis by creating an imbalance in the host immune response that ultimately leads to reduced phagocytic function, impaired fungal clearance, and increased mortality. Conversely, inhibitors of thrombospondin-1 may be useful drugs to improve patient recovery from disseminated candidiasis.
|Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Lizak, Martin J et al. (2013) MRI confirms loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. NMR Biomed 26:1125-34|