1. The main services of the Pathology Core are histology procedures, such as formalin-fixed tissue embedding, sectioning and histology staining. For this purpose, the Core receives samples in fixed or in fresh condition. These samples are processed and embedded in paraffin or OCT compound for either paraffin or frozen sections. The paraffin embedded samples can be cut routinely as 5 micron thick sections mounted on glass slides. The serial sections through an entire organ or embryo, or mixed with thick (20-100 microns) and thin (5-10 microns) step sections also can be cut upon request. Frozen sections are normally cut at a thickness of 8-10 microns. The Pathology core provides routine histology staining with Hematoxylin and Eosin according to Harris methods (Laboratory Methods in Histotechnology. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Edited by Prophet EB, Mills B, Arrington JB and Sobin LH, pp 56, American Registry of Pathology, Washington, DC, 1992). In addition, we also perform special histology staining, including PAS, Masson tri-chrome, Movat, Elastic Van Gieson and Oil-Red O stain. All these services are performed by the Core staff and finished in a timely manner. Most requests are completed within a two-week period, except urgent requests that can be arranged as a higher-priority request. In some cases, results can be returned to users the next day. Since the last report, the pathology core provided these services for a total of 222 requests by 47 customers from 25 PIs/ laboratories. We have processed a total of 2,740 tissue blocks and cut 30,302 histology slides, which are usually mounted with 2 or 3 tissue sections. Among them, there were 5,245 slides stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for routine histology. In addition, we also processed 1,799 slides for other specific staining procedures as mentioned above. 2. Diagnostic pathology. For this service,the Core head is involved in discussion of experimental design, sample collection methods and final evaluations of the results. We provide histology products such as cut and stained histology slides, perform immune-staining procedures, evaluate the results, describe the findings and make a scoring sheet with representative photographs. In most cases, this service will contribute to a manuscript submission and we will provide the final microscopic figures. We performed these services for 12 scientists from 6 PI/laboratories including histo-pathological diagnosis, histology evaluations with the score system and provided final images for publications. This resulted in 5 publications in 2012 and 4 in 2013. (See list of publications) 3. Training, consultation and trouble shooting for DIR scientists and fellows in the fields of histo-pathology and immuno-histochemistry. We provide training for tissue processing, embedding and sectioning for paraffin and frozen samples. In addition, we also offer testing for antibodies and for immuno-staining procedures and consultation for immuno-staining problems. We have trained 4 scientists/students for cutting frozen sections and 3 scientists for immunohistochemistry procedures. In the latter case,the Core head worked closely with the scientists for selection of antibodies and protocols, and then provided hands-on staining demonstration until the scientist can perform the procedures independently.

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National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
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Liu, Julia C; Liu, Jie; Holmström, Kira M et al. (2016) MICU1 Serves as a Molecular Gatekeeper to Prevent In Vivo Mitochondrial Calcium Overload. Cell Rep 16:1561-73
Arbore, Giuseppina; West, Erin E; Spolski, Rosanne et al. (2016) T helper 1 immunity requires complement-driven NLRP3 inflammasome activity in CD4⁺ T cells. Science 352:aad1210
Yang, Zhi-Hong; Bando, Masahiro; Sakurai, Toshihiro et al. (2016) Long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid-rich fish oil attenuates the development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. Mol Nutr Food Res 60:2208-2218
Zadrozny, Leah M; Neufeld, Edward B; Lucotte, Bertrand M et al. (2015) Study of the development of the mouse thoracic aorta three-dimensional macromolecular structure using two-photon microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 63:8-21
Glancy, Brian; Hartnell, Lisa M; Malide, Daniela et al. (2015) Mitochondrial reticulum for cellular energy distribution in muscle. Nature 523:617-20
Valencia, Julio C; Steagall, Wendy K; Zhang, Yi et al. (2015) Antibody αPEP13h reacts with lymphangioleiomyomatosis cells in lung nodules. Chest 147:771-7
Wan, Chi-Keung; Li, Peng; Spolski, Rosanne et al. (2015) IL-21-mediated non-canonical pathway for IL-1β production in conventional dendritic cells. Nat Commun 6:7988
Mishra, Amarjit; Brown, Alexandra L; Yao, Xianglan et al. (2015) Dendritic cells induce Th2-mediated airway inflammatory responses to house dust mite via DNA-dependent protein kinase. Nat Commun 6:6224
Du, Ning; Kwon, Hyokjoon; Li, Peng et al. (2014) EGR2 is critical for peripheral naïve T-cell differentiation and the T-cell response to influenza. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:16484-9
Neufeld, Edward B; Zadrozny, Leah M; Phillips, Darci et al. (2014) Decorin and biglycan retain LDL in disease-prone valvular and aortic subendothelial intimal matrix. Atherosclerosis 233:113-21

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