Moist deep convection organized on planetary to synoptic scales in the tropical atmosphere evolves together with extratropical Rossby waves that extend from the tropics and across high latitudes as well as from the extratropics into the tropics. This convection is organized in part into the 30-60 day eastward-moving Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and higher frequency convectively coupled atmospheric equatorial waves. Both the MJO and these convectively coupled waves interact with extratropical waves. This project endeavors to explain how these convectively coupled equatorial waves and extratropical waves might interact with each other and the wave breaking process in a manner that causes some of the major attributes of the MJO.
The MJO profoundly influences extended range (4+ days) prediction of extreme weather events around the globe ranging from tropical cyclones to excessive heat, cold, floods, and droughts. The study will provide insights into the mechanisms whereby the MJO interacts with extratropical waves that are associated with such extreme events. Thus the work has substantial broader impacts.