In the history of the development of the first ballistic missile and the development of the US ballistic missile and space programs, it is clear that Wernher von Braun played a central role. While several biographies have been published about von Braun, these studies tend to be anecdotal, inaccurate and hagiographical. None of them have used the full range of archives available both in the US and Germany about von Braun's life and work. Dr. Neufeld ultimately wants to write a full biography of von Braun. Under this grant, however, he is examining only the first, seminal part of von Braun's career, his work at Peenemunde in the development of the V-2 rocket. Specifically, Dr. Neufeld is examining the institutional and managerial origins of the remarkable technological success of Peenemunde, in particular the construction of an Army/university/corporate research and development empire of von Braun, General Dornberger, and others in the Third Reich. Second, Dr. Neufeld is investigating the relationship of von Braun and his associates to Nazism, and their knowledge of, and responsibility for war crimes committed in the production of the V-2. These studies will have considerable historiographical significance in their own right because they will ground the Peenemunde and von Braun story in thorough archival research. They will also place these developments in their proper context of important historical debates on the role of the state and the military in 20th century technological change, on the character of science under Nazism, and on the nature of the war economy and political system in the Third Reich.