Strain localization is common in crustal orogenic belts, where shear zones are often found within carbonate rocks. Many field studies indicate that localization is accompanied by striking changes in such aspects of rock structure as grain size, lattice (crystallographic) preferred orientation, major and accessory phase chemistry, pore geometry, and phase dispersion. Previous laboratory studies indicate that creep strength changes over large intervals of strain, and that grain size, grain shape, and lattice preferred orientation evolve concurrently. Recent work also showed that the kinetics of recrystallization scaled with the rate of work done during deformation, that lattice preferred orientation could be strongly affected by the shape and dispersion parameters of accessory phases, and that Mg solid solutes influenced both grain-boundary mobility and the transition from diffusion to dislocation creep. In order to understand localization and evolution of strength during natural deformation, the size of each effect and the relative kinetics of the candidate mechanisms must be known. This project will make observations of deformation microstructure in carbonate rocks from shear zones in the Swiss Alps, and in samples deformed in the laboratory and in collaboration with workers at the Universities of Liverpool and Manchester, UK. Mechanical tests will include simple-shear, torsion, and conventional triaxial loading of natural and synthetic marbles at strain rates of 10^-2-10^-6 ^-1, confining pressures less than 300 MPa, and temperature between 500-1000 K. Two new techniques, microstrain mapping, and sequential microanalysis at high shear-strains, will be used to understand the kinetics and partitioning of strain amongst the various deformation mechanisms.
By combining thorough fieldwork, careful experiments, and detailed observations, the aim is to bridge some of the gaps between laboratory and field studies. In addition to increasing knowledge of tectonics and mechanical properties of rocks, the laboratory work will improve the database for the mechanical behavior of carbonate rocks, which are of considerable interest in such engineering applications as enhanced recovery of oil in limestone reservoirs, sequestration of carbon dioxide in fractured and sedimentary carbonate formations, and designing engineered underground structures.