Alzheimer?s Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in the world and the 6th leading cause of death in the United States. Despite significant effort, current AD therapies are highly limited in both number and efficacy. Hope for new therapeutic interventions has emerged from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which have identified genes whose mutations are linked to altered AD susceptibility. One of the strongest and most reproducible genetic associations with altered AD risk are members of the Membrane Spanning 4a (MS4A) gene family. In fact, current genetic data suggest that MS4A polymorphisms account for approximately 10% of all AD cases. However, a limited understanding of MS4As has hindered the development of therapies targeting these proteins. Single cell transcriptional profiling has revealed that the Ms4a genes genetically linked to AD are selectively expressed in a subset of microglia, the resident innate immune cells of the central nervous system. Furthermore, MS4A-positive subsets of microglia display a phenotype similar to microglia seen in neurodegenerative disease states, necessitating inquiry into the role of MS4As in microglia. We found that Ms4a-positive microglia are enriched for phagocytic machinery versus Ms4a-negative microglia, and animals deficient for individual Ms4a family members have significantly reduced expression of genes important for phagocytosis compared to wild-type (WT) animals. Microglial phagocytosis is a dynamic process by which brain debris, dying cells, unwanted synaptic connections, and toxic molecules are eliminated and disruption of this process is thought to underlie numerous neurological disorders, including AD. Thus, this proposal will test the hypothesis that MS4As regulate microglial phagocytosis and alter AD pathogenesis. To test this hypothesis, aim 1 will examine microglia phagocytosis of synapses, dead neurons, and amyloid-beta 42- one of the neurotoxic, pathogenic agents of AD- both in vitro and in vivo using Ms4a-deficient and WT microglia. These experiments will characterize the role of MS4As in microglia, and provide insight into how MS4As affect microglial phagocytosis.
Aim 2 will investigate the role of MS4As in AD pathogenesis. Although GWAS studies have strongly linked MS4A polymorphisms to AD susceptibility, the role of MS4A genes in AD is unknown. Some MS4A alleles confer AD protection while others increase AD susceptibility, and MA4A polymorphisms are often located in non-coding regions of these genes. To investigate whether MS4As are protective against or contributive toward AD, mice that are homozygous deficient for individual Ms4a family members will be crossed to the 5XFAD mouse model of AD and pathological features of AD, including behavioral defects in memory, amyloid beta plaque formation, microgliosis, neuronal loss, and synapse elimination will be assessed. Together, these aims will provide fundamental new insight into the role of MS4As in AD and contribute to the the development of therapeutic approaches targeting MS4A receptors.
Alzheimer?s Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, robbing patients of their cognitive abilities, memories, and quality of life. This proposal seeks to understand how a gene family, whose mutations account for approximately 10% of all AD, contributes to AD by changing the function of immune cells in the brain. The results of this proposal will help understand how AD develops and provide insight for the development of new therapies to treat this devastating disease.