The advent of commercially available type-specific serologies, in combination with counseling and antiviral therapy has provided the tools to initiate more active preventative strategies for the reduction of HSV-2 transmission. An effective HSV vaccine could enhance these tools even more. However, to effectively implement a preventative strategy better understanding is needed of the biological and behavioral correlates of HSV-2 transmission.
The specific aims of this proposal are: 1) To determine, based on the duration of sex partnerships prior to transmission, behavioral, virologic, and immunologic risk factors (such as source partner's lack of awareness of infection, condom use, high viral shedding rates and serostatus) which confer increased risk of HSV transmission, 2) to examine the behavioral, virologic and immunologic aspects of persistently HSV-2 discordant partnerships (non-transmitters). The hypothesis are that most HSV-2 infections are acquired within a short time of initiation of the sex partnership, from persons unaware that they have the infection, and lack of condom use and high viral shedding rates in the source partners are also associated with high risk of HSV transmission to sex partners. The study will be documented by restriction enzyme analysis. Behavioral information will be elicited by interview with both partners and biologic correlates will be assessed using viral isolation, HSV DNA PCR and type-specific serologies. Shedding rate in source partners will be evaluated prospectively using daily viral cultures. Behavioral, virologic and immunologic aspects of protection from transmission will also be assessed in 250 HSV-2 discordant couples. The analysis will use the Cox proportional hazards model to assess the relative risk of characteristics associated with HSV-2 transmission. In exploratory analyses, local and systemic immune responses of HSV-2 exposed but infected persons, and HSV-2 transmitters versus non-transmitters will be assessed. Findings from this study will characterize persons at high risk for transmitting and at high risk for acquiring genital herpes: prevention efforts should focus on these groups.

Project Start
2000-04-01
Project End
2001-03-31
Budget Start
1998-10-01
Budget End
1999-09-30
Support Year
10
Fiscal Year
2000
Total Cost
$166,251
Indirect Cost
Name
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Department
Type
DUNS #
075524595
City
Seattle
State
WA
Country
United States
Zip Code
98109
Schiffer, Joshua T; Swan, Dave A; Roychoudhury, Pavitra et al. (2018) A Fixed Spatial Structure of CD8+ T Cells in Tissue during Chronic HSV-2 Infection. J Immunol 201:1522-1535
Traidl, Stephan; Kienlin, Petra; Begemann, Gabriele et al. (2018) Patients with atopic dermatitis and history of eczema herpeticum elicit herpes simplex virus-specific type 2 immune responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 141:1144-1147.e5
Ramchandani, Meena; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia et al. (2018) Prospective cohort study showing persistent HSV-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition. Sex Transm Infect 94:568-570
Boucoiran, Isabelle; Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M et al. (2018) Nonprimary Maternal Cytomegalovirus Infection After Viral Shedding in Infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 37:627-631
Kleinstein, Sarah E; Shea, Patrick R; Allen, Andrew S et al. (2018) Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of human host factors influencing viral severity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Genes Immun :
Looker, Katharine J; Magaret, Amalia S; May, Margaret T et al. (2017) First estimates of the global and regional incidence of neonatal herpes infection. Lancet Glob Health 5:e300-e309
Aravantinou, Meropi; Mizenina, Olga; Calenda, Giulia et al. (2017) Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Infected Rhesus Macaques. Front Microbiol 8:2342
Gottlieb, Sami L; Johnston, Christine (2017) Future prospects for new vaccines against sexually transmitted infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 30:77-86
Peng, Tao; Chanthaphavong, R Savanh; Sun, Sijie et al. (2017) Keratinocytes produce IL-17c to protect peripheral nervous systems during human HSV-2 reactivation. J Exp Med 214:2315-2329
Ott, Mariliis; Jing, Lichen; Lorenzo, Lazaro et al. (2017) T-cell Responses to HSV-1 in Persons Who Have Survived Childhood Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 36:741-744

Showing the most recent 10 out of 345 publications