This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing theresources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. The subproject andinvestigator (PI) may have received primary funding from another NIH source,and thus could be represented in other CRISP entries. The institution listed isfor the Center, which is not necessarily the institution for the investigator.Voltage-dependent K+ channels rely on precise dynamic protein interactions with surrounding plasma membrane lipids to facilitate complex processes such as voltage sensing and channel gating. Many transmembrane-spanning proteins use palmitoylation to facilitate dynamic membrane interactions. Herein, we demonstrate that the human Kv1.1 ion channel is palmitoylated in the cytosolic portion of the S2-S3 linker domain at residue C243. Through heterologous expression of the human Kv1.1 protein in Sf9 cells, covalent radiolabeling with [3H]palmitate, chemical stability studies of the [3H]-palmitoylated protein, and site-directed mutagenesis, C243 was identified as the predominant site of palmitoylation. The functional sequelae of palmitoylation were examined by analysis of whole cell currents from WT and mutant channels, which identified a 20-mV leftward shift in the current-voltage relationship when palmitoylation at C243 (but not with other cysteine deletions) is prevented by site-directed mutagenesis, implicating a role for palmitoylated C243 in modulating voltage sensing through protein-membrane interactions. Database searches identified an amino acid palmitoylation consensus motif (ACP/RSKT) that is present in multiple other members of the Shaker subfamily of K+ channels and in several other unrelated regulatory proteins (e.g., CD36, nitric oxide synthase type 2, and the mannose-6 phosphate receptor) that are known to be palmitoylated by thioester linkages at the predicted consensus site cysteine residue. Collectively, these results (i) identify palmitoylation as a mechanism for K+ channel interactions with plasma membrane lipids contributing to electric field-induced conformational alterations, and ii) define an amino acid consensus sequence for protein palmitoylation.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Type
Biotechnology Resource Grants (P41)
Project #
5P41RR000954-30
Application #
7597645
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-BPC-H (40))
Project Start
2007-02-01
Project End
2008-01-31
Budget Start
2007-02-01
Budget End
2008-01-31
Support Year
30
Fiscal Year
2007
Total Cost
$2,824
Indirect Cost
Name
Washington University
Department
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
068552207
City
Saint Louis
State
MO
Country
United States
Zip Code
63130
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