This is a first renewal application of an excellent, highly productive team of a Bioengineer (G. Ateshian) with a Biochemist (W. Valhmu) who are studying the mechanisms of articular cartilage lubrication and/or failure of lubrication on loading/frictional characteristics of bovine articular cartilage. Based on previous theories and experiments, the authors propose new experiments to further characterize the relationships between friction and fluid pressurization of articular cartilage. The overall theory being tested is that pressurization shifts load away from contacting cartilage surfaces, thus decreasing friction until pressurization subsides. Three relevant hypotheses are to be tested in this renewal: 1/that friction depends on interstitial fluid support load, equilibrium frictional coefficient and solid-to-solid contact; that cartilage-on-cartilage contact fraction area is smaller than cartilage on glass. 2/ under normal loading, cartilage always maintains high interstitial fluid support with low friction and 3/ enzymatic degradation will defeat interstitial load mechanisms and increase the coefficient of friction. Using a unique load-or-displacement controlled frictional testing apparatus containing a microchip pressure transducer to measure cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization directly, the authors will systematically test these hypotheses through a series of carefully thought out permutations and combinations of load-versus-displacement controlled tests. The ability to test the fluid pressures within cartilage samples under these various, well-controlled, physiologically relevant loading conditions, in order to test various theories of cartilage lubrication and friction, is extremely important and unique. The investigators provide extensive evidence that this proposal is both logical and feasible. Their background review on the topic, along with their papers on the topic over the past few years are all outstanding. They provide both strong theoretical and experimental evidence to support the concepts that they are testing. The main concept is that fluid pressurization is critical to controlling cartilage friction. They will test that theory using cartilage-on-glass tests along with some very important and unique cartilage-on-cartilage tests at stresses from 0.05Mpa-5 Mpa, frequencies of 0.0005Hz - 0.5 Hz and up to 10 percent compressive strains, with and without enzymatic (collagenase, chondroitinase ABC and hyaluronidase) treatments.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-OBM-2 (01))
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Lester, Gayle E
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Columbia University (N.Y.)
Engineering (All Types)
Schools of Engineering
New York
United States
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Silverstein, A M; Stefani, R M; Sobczak, E et al. (2017) Toward understanding the role of cartilage particulates in synovial inflammation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 25:1353-1361
Jones, Brian; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard (2016) Biphasic Analysis of Cartilage Stresses in the Patellofemoral Joint. J Knee Surg 29:92-8
Albro, Michael B; Nims, Robert J; Durney, Krista M et al. (2016) Heterogeneous engineered cartilage growth results from gradients of media-supplemented active TGF-? and is ameliorated by the alternative supplementation of latent TGF-?. Biomaterials 77:173-185
Oungoulian, Sevan R; Durney, Krista M; Jones, Brian K et al. (2015) Wear and damage of articular cartilage with friction against orthopedic implant materials. J Biomech 48:1957-64
Ateshian, Gerard A; Henak, Corinne R; Weiss, Jeffrey A (2015) Toward patient-specific articular contact mechanics. J Biomech 48:779-86
Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T et al. (2015) The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading. J Biomech 48:3945-9
Ateshian, Gerard A (2015) Viscoelasticity using reactive constrained solid mixtures. J Biomech 48:941-7
Oungoulian, Sevan R; Hehir, Kristin E; Zhu, Kaicen et al. (2014) Effect of glutaraldehyde fixation on the frictional response of immature bovine articular cartilage explants. J Biomech 47:694-701
Albro, Michael B; Nims, Robert J; Cigan, Alexander D et al. (2013) Dynamic mechanical compression of devitalized articular cartilage does not activate latent TGF-?. J Biomech 46:1433-9
Oungoulian, Sevan R; Chang, Stephany; Bortz, Orian et al. (2013) Articular cartilage wear characterization with a particle sizing and counting analyzer. J Biomech Eng 135:024501

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