Barriers to appropriate HIV treatment and care for HIV-infected injection drug users (IDU) are a growing concern. International efforts to improve the delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to IDU, such as the WHO'S 3 by 5 Initiative, are in urgent need of data on how these barriers can be addressed. While there has been much focus on HIV prevention for HIV-negative IDU, there has recently been a growing recognition that breaking the cycle of HIV transmission will require renewed focus on behaviors and prevention needs of HIV-infected IDU. This proposal seeks to fill the information gap existing in North America and elsewhere through the following specific aims: 1. To evaluate the incidence of HIV/AIDS service uptake (e.g., antiretroviral therapy) and factors associated with uptake among IDU 2. To evaluate the incidence of HIV antiretroviral drug resistance among HIV-infected IDU and the role of unique antiretroviral delivery models on the time to antiretroviral resistance 3. To evaluate trends in HIV disease progression and factors such as medical service and secondary prevention service use that may be associated with reduced disease progression among IDU 4. To determine factors associated with persistent HIV risk behaviors (e.g., syringe lending) in a setting with comprehensive evidence-based HIV prevention strategies for HIV-infected IDU.
These aims will be met through the development of a new prospective cohort study of HIV-infected IDU in Vancouver, Canada. This setting is unique, since all medical care and antiretrovirals are provided free of charge through a universal healthcare system, allowing the research program to focus on non-financial barriers to care. The cohort will involve serial blood sampling to evaluate antiretroviral resistance patterns, a detailed questionnaire to evaluate illicit drug use and related behaviors, and ongoing administrative linkages to the province's centralized medical care and social service databases to evaluate access to antiretrovirals and access to other HIV/AIDS care and prevention services. By helping to fill a critical information gap, this study has the potential to make a major contribution to public health policies for IDU.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Behavioral and Social Consequences of HIV/AIDS Study Section (BSCH)
Program Officer
Lambert, Elizabeth
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of British Columbia
Zip Code
V6 1-Z3
Klimas, Jan; Wood, Evan; Nosova, Ekaterina et al. (2018) Prevalence of Heavy Alcohol Use Among People Receiving Methadone Following Change to Methadose. Subst Use Misuse 53:270-275
Cortina, Sandra; Kennedy, Mary Clare; Dong, Huiru et al. (2018) Willingness to use an in-hospital supervised inhalation room among people who smoke crack cocaine in Vancouver, Canada. Drug Alcohol Rev 37:645-652
Melo, J S; Garfein, R S; Hayashi, K et al. (2018) Do law enforcement interactions reduce the initiation of injection drug use? An investigation in three North American settings. Drug Alcohol Depend 182:67-73
Bozinoff, Nikki; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J et al. (2018) Utilization of opioid agonist therapy among incarcerated persons with opioid use disorder in Vancouver, Canada. Drug Alcohol Depend 193:42-47
Reddon, Hudson; DeBeck, Kora; Socias, Maria Eugenia et al. (2018) Cannabis use is associated with lower rates of initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth: A longitudinal analysis. Drug Alcohol Rev 37:421-428
Mohd Salleh, Nur Afiqah; Richardson, Lindsey; Kerr, Thomas et al. (2018) A Longitudinal Analysis of Daily Pill Burden and Likelihood of Optimal Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living With HIV Who Use Drugs. J Addict Med 12:308-314
Ho, Joel; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J et al. (2018) Increasing availability of illicit and prescription opioids among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting, 2010-2014. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 44:368-377
Beaulieu, Tara; Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, Michael J et al. (2018) HIV Serostatus and Having Access to a Physician for Regular Hepatitis C Virus Care Among People Who Inject Drugs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 78:93-98
Reddon, Hudson; Pettes, Tyler; Wood, Evan et al. (2018) Incidence and predictors of mental health disorder diagnoses among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting. Drug Alcohol Rev 37 Suppl 1:S285-S293
Walton, Geoffrey; Dong, Huiru; Milloy, M J et al. (2018) Increasing availability of benzodiazepines among people who inject drugs in a Canadian setting. Subst Abus 39:69-76

Showing the most recent 10 out of 183 publications