Investigators' abstract): This application has the goal of providing more efficacious fluoride (F) treatments for preventing or reversing caries and desensitizing dentin, than current consumer and professional products. The overall hypothesis is that two-component reactant systems can form the basis for superior dental treatments that operate by efficiently removing fluoride, phosphate and calcium ions from solution and ge vehicles and depositing them within dental tissues. This approach is proposed as being capable of enhancing caries protection at a given level of fluoride exposure, and producing long-lasting tubule obturation to desensitize teeth. The basic strategy is to utilize separate components that react to efficiently precipitate and remove a high proportion of mineral ions from solution, and to control the rate of precipitation so as to facilitate permeation of the reactants into dental hard tissues and the deposition of large amounts of insoluble mineral within carious lesions or dentinal tubules.
Five specific aims are proposed, each of which will involve three to four related studies.
Aim 1. In vitro and intraoral determination of the remineralization potential of two-component, reduced fluoride rinses and dentifrices.
Aim 2. Intraoral evaluation of the anticaries effect of a remineralizing gel material to be placed interproximally, and development and in vitro evaluation of a similar thermo-plasticized gel material as a pit and fissure anticaries treatment.
Aim 3. Intraoral evaluation of the anticaries effect of a remineralizing chewing gum; and in vitro development and in vivo testing in a pilot clinical trial of calcium (Ca)- and phosphate-releasing chewing gum for tubule obturation and desensitization.
Aim 4. Development, in vitro testing, and pilot clinical evaluation of a two-step topical treatment for desensitizing dentin by obturation of tubules with insoluble Ca-phosphate products.
Aim 5. Study of chemical and physical mechanisms of two-component phosphate chemistry systems that have potential to control the deposition of insoluble Ca, F and phosphate compounds within dental tissues.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG4-OBM-2 (01))
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American Dental Association Foundation
United States
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Markovic, M; Takagi, S; Chow, L C et al. (2009) Calcium Fluoride Precipitation and Deposition From 12 mmol/L Fluoride Solutions With Different Calcium Addition Rates. J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol 114:293-301
Vogel, G L; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C et al. (2008) Ca pre-rinse greatly increases plaque and plaque fluid F. J Dent Res 87:466-9
Chow, L C; Takagi, S; Shern, R J et al. (1994) Effects on whole saliva of chewing gums containing calcium phosphates. J Dent Res 73:26-32
Takagi, S; Chow, L C; Sieck, B A (1992) Deposition of loosely bound and firmly bound fluorides on tooth enamel by an acidic gel containing fluorosilicate and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate. Caries Res 26:321-7
Chow, L C; Takagi, S; Shih, S (1992) Effect of a two-solution fluoride mouthrinse on remineralization of enamel lesions in vitro. J Dent Res 71:443-7
Vogel, G L; Mao, Y; Carey, C M et al. (1992) In vivo fluoride concentrations measured for two hours after a NaF or a novel two-solution rinse. J Dent Res 71:448-52
Eidelman, N; Chow, L C (1991) Effects of pH and calcium on hydrolysis of Na2SiF6 and Na2SnF6. A quasi-constant composition titration study. Caries Res 25:101-7
Chow, L C; Takagi, S (1991) Deposition of fluoride on tooth surfaces by a two-solution mouthrinse in vitro. Caries Res 25:397-401
Takagi, S; Chow, L C; Schreiber, C T (1990) Enhanced root fluoride uptake by monocalcium phosphate monohydrate gels. Caries Res 24:18-22
Sieck, B; Takagi, S; Chow, L C (1990) Assessment of loosely-bound and firmly-bound fluoride uptake by tooth enamel from topically applied fluoride treatments. J Dent Res 69:1261-5

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