? This is a single year application for a block travel grant to support expenses for up to ten selected U.S. graduate students and post-doctoral scientists attending the 17th biennial Congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology (IOM) at Tianjin Medical University in Tianjin, China, July 6-11, 2008. This conference is the only regular national or international meeting that focuses specifically on the biology and pathogenesis of the mycoplasmas, which are very small, cell wall-less bacteria important to public health, agriculture, and wildlife. This congress is sponsored by and organized under the direction of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology to provide a forum for the exchange of scientific findings regarding the mycoplasmas, discuss recent research progress, identify areas requiring greater emphasis, set research goals for the next biennium, recognize outstanding achievement in the field, and promote the study of mycoplasmas to young scientists. This conference focuses specifically on the biology and pathogenesis of the mycoplasmas, which are bacteria important to public health, agriculture, and wildlife. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the leading cause of pneumonia in older children and young adults and can lead to chronic or permanent lung damage. Mycoplasma genitalium is a major cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, while Ureaplasma urealyticum infections are associated with pulmonary problems in neonates, spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, and premature birth. ? ? ?